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The New Pāli Course Book 1
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Part 9
Part 10
Vocabulary: Pali-English
Vocabulary: English-Pali
For free distribution, as a gift of Dhamma.

The New Pali Course Book 1

28. Masculine ending in -u

Declension of Gu.navantu (virtuous)

Case Singular Plural
Nom. gu.navaa gu.navanto, gu.navantaa
Acc. gu.navanta.m gu.navante
Ins. gu.navataa, gu.navantena gu.navantebhi, gu.navantehi
Dat., Gen. gu.navato, gu.navantassa gu.navata.m, gu.navantaana.m
Abl. gu.navataa, gu.navantamhaa, gu.navantasmaa gu.navantebhi, gu.navantehi
Loc. gu.navati, gu.navante, gu.navantamhi, gu.navantasmi.m gu.navantesu
Voc. gu.nava.m, gu.nava, gu.navaa gu.navanto, gu.navantaa

The following are declined similarly:-

Those ending in -mantu should be declined as: cakkhumaa, cakkhumanto, cakkhumataa and so on.

29. Declension of masculine nouns ending in uu

Viduu (wise man or knower)

Case Singular Plural
Nom., Voc. viduu viduu, viduno
Acc. vidu.m viduu, viduno
Ins. vidunaa viduubhi, viduuhi
Dat., Gen. viduno, vidussa viduuna.m

The rest are similar to those of garu.

The following are declined similarly:-

30. Adverbs of time

Exercise 10

Translate into English

  1. Bhagavaa ajja sotaaraana.m dhamma.m desessati.
  2. Bhikkhavo bhagavanta.m vandi.msu.
  3. Cakkhumanto sadaa bhaanumanta.m passanti.
  4. Tadaa balavanto ve.luuhi arii pahari.msu.
  5. Kadaa tumhe dhanavanta.m passissatha?
  6. Suve maya.m siilavante vandissaama.
  7. Bhagavanto sabba~n~nuno bhavanti.
  8. Viduno kulavato geha.m gacchi.msu.
  9. Himavati kapayo ca pakkhino ca isayo ca vasi.msu.
  10. Pu~n~navato nattaa buddhimaa bhavi.
  11. Kulavata.m bhaataro dhanavanto na bhavi.msu.
  12. Aha.m Himavantamhi phalavante rukkhe passi.m.
  13. Puraa maya.m Himavanta.m gacchimha.
  14. Hiiyo saaya.m bandhumanto yasavata.m gaama.m gacchi.msu.
  15. Vi~n~nuno pacchaa pabhuno gehe vasissanti

Translate into Pali

  1. Sons of the wealthy are not always wise.
  2. One who has relations does not fear enemies.
  3. The brothers of the virtuous will bow down to the Exalted One.
  4. Your grandsons are not intelligent.
  5. Tomorrow the wise men will preach to the men of the high caste.
  6. Today the rich will go to a mountain in the Himalayas.
  7. There are fruitful trees, lions and leopards in the garden of the rich man.
  8. When will the famous men come to our village?
  9. The sons of the powerful will always be famous.
  10. Once, the wise man's brother struck the virtuous man.
  11. Formerly I lived in the house of the over-lord.
  12. Yesterday there were elephants and horses in the garden.
  13. Now the man of high caste will buy a lion and a deer.
  14. Our fathers were mindful.
  15. Once we saw the sun from the rich man's garden.

Declension of Feminine Nouns

31. There are no nouns ending in -a in feminine.

Vanitaa (woman)

Case Singular Plural
Nom. vanitaa vanitaa, vanitaayo
Acc. vanita.m vanitaa, vanitaayo
Abl., Ins. vanitaaya vanitaabhi, vanitaahi
Dat., Gen. vanitaaya vanitaana.m
Loc. vanitaaya.m, vanitaaya vanitaasu
Voc. vanite vanitaa, vanitaayo

The following are declined similarly:-

The Imperative

32. The Imperative Mood is used to express command, prayer, advice or wish. This is called Pa~ncamii in Pali and includes the Benedictive.

Paca (to cook)

Person Singular Plural
3rd (so) pacatu = let him cook (te) pacantu = let them cook
2nd (tva.m) paca, pacaahi = cookest thou (tumhe) pacatha = cook you
1st (aha.m) pacaami = let me cook (maya.m) pacaama = let us cook

The following are conjugated similarly:-

The Optative or Potential

33. The Potential Mood - called "Sattami" in Pali - expresses probability, command, wish, prayer, hope, advice and capability. It is used in conditional or hypothetical sentences in which one statement depends upon another.

Verbs containing auxiliary parts may, might, can, could, should and would are included in this mood.

Paca (to cook)

Case Singular Plural
3rd (So) paceyya = if he (would) cook (Te) paceyyu.m = if they (would) cook
2nd (Tva.m) paceyyaasi = if thou (wouldst) cook (Tumhe) paceyyaatha = if you (would) cook
1st (Aha.m) paceyyaami = if I (would) cook (Maya.m) paceyyaama = if we (would) cook

The following are conjugated similarly:-

Note. Equivalents to "if" are sace, yadi and ce; but ce should not be used at the beginning of a sentence.

Exercise 11

Translate into English

  1. Vanitaayo naavaahi ga`ngaaya.m gacchantu.
  2. Tva.m saalaaya.m ka~n~naana.m odana.m pacaahi.
  3. Sace tumhe nahaayissatha, aha.m pi nahaayissaami.
  4. Yadi so sabhaaya.m katheyya, aha.m pi katheyyaami.
  5. La`nkaaya bhuupatino senaayo jayantu.
  6. Devataa vasudhaaya.m manusse rakkhantu.
  7. Sace te vaaluka.m aahareyyu.m aha.m (ta.m) ki.nissaami.
  8. Tumhe daarikaaya hatthe maala.m .thapetha.
  9. Saalaaya chaayaa vasudhaaya patati.
  10. Coraa ma~njuusaayo guha.m hari.msu.
  11. Ka~n~naayo godha.m sakkharaahi pahari.msu.
  12. Hatthii so.n.daaya taruno saakha.m chindi.
  13. Sace maya.m guhaaya.m sayeyyaama pasavo no haneyyu.m.
  14. Tumhe mittehi saha sura.m maa pivatha*.
  15. Maya.m parisaaya saddhi.m odana.m bhu~njissaama.
  16. Bhaanumato pabhaa sindhumi bhavatu.
  17. Daarikaa ka~n~naaya naasaaya.m sakkhara.m pakkhipi.
  18. Tumhe parisaahi saddhi.m mama katha.m su.naatha.
  19. Amhaaka.m ammaa dolaaya gaama.m agacchi.
  20. Sace tva.m va.lava.m ki.neyyaasi, aha.m assa.m ki.nissaami.

* Maa pivatha = do not drink. Particle maa should be used in such a place instead of na.

Translate into Pali

  1. The robber carried the box to the cave.
  2. Go to your village with your mothers.
  3. Let the women go along the river in a ship.
  4. If he buys a deer I will sell my mare.
  5. We heard the speech of the girl at the meeting.
  6. We utter words with our tongues.
  7. Do not strike the iguana with pebbles.
  8. May my following be victorious in the island of La`nkaa.
  9. May our offerings be to the wise.
  10. Adorn* the maiden's neck with a garland.
  11. The shadow of the creeper falls on the earth.
  12. The woman brought a scale from the hall.
  13. Do not drink liquor with girls and boys.
  14. If you will cook rice I will give food to the woman.
  15. May the deities protect our sons and grandsons.
  16. The girls brought sand from the street.
  17. My following cut the branches of the tree.
  18. Let the elephant bring a stone to the street.
  19. The beasts will kill him if he will sit in the cave.
  20. There are gems in the maiden's box.

* Adorn -- ala.nkarohi.

34. Declension of feminine stems ending in -i

Bhuumi (earth, ground or floor)

Case Singular Plural
Nom., Voc. bhuumi bhuumi, bhuumiyo
Acc. bhuumi.m bhuumi, bhuumiyo
Abl., Ins. bhuumiyaa, bhuumyaa bhuumiibhi, bhuumiihi
Dat., Gen. bhuumiyaa bhuumiina.m
Loc. bhuumiya.m, bhuumiyaa bhuumiisu

The following are declined similarly:-

35. Declension of feminine stems ending in -ii

Kumaarii (girl, damsel)

Case Singular Plural
Nom., Voc. kumaarii kumaarii, kumaariyo
Acc. kumaari.m kumaarii, kumaariyo
Abl., Ins. kumaariyaa kumaariibhi, kumaariihi
Dat., Gen. kumaariyaa kumaariina.m
Loc. kumaariya.m, kumaariyaa kumaariisu

The following are declined similarly:-

Absolutives or so-called Indeclinable Past Participles

36. The words ending in tvaa, tvaana, tuuna and ya, like katvaa (having done), gantvaana (having gone), and aadaaya (having taken), are called Absolutives, which cannot be declined. All other participles, being verbal adjectives, are declined.

Some European Pali scholars have called them "gerunds"; but, as the Past Participles may be used in their place without affecting the sense, they resemble more in the Active Past Participle, e.g.,

In the sentence: So gaama.m gantvaa bhatta.m bhu~nji (Having gone to the village, he ate rice)...

... "gantvaa" may be replaced by Past Participle gato.

In analysing a sentence, these go to the extension of the predicate, which in fact shows that they are neither gerunds nor participles.



A. Tvaa, tvaana and tuuna may be optionally used, and they are added to the base by means of a connection vowel i, when the base is not ending in a long aa.

B. "Ya" is mostly added to the roots compounded with prefixes, e.g. aa + daa + ya = aadaaya, vi + dhaa + ya = vidhaaya.

In other cases it is sometimes assimilated with the last consonant of the base or sometimes interchanged with it, e.g.,

(1) Assimilated:
aa + gam + ya = aagamma (having come)
ni + kham + ya = nikkhamma (having come out)

(2) Interchanged:
aa + ruh + ya = aaruyha (having ascended)
pa + gah + ya = paggayha (having raised up)
o + ruh + ya = oruyha (having descended)

Exercise 12

Translate into English

  1. Braahma.nii kumaariyaa saddhi.m nadiya.m nahaatvaa geha.m agami.
  2. Naariyo odana.m pacitvaa bhu~njitvaa kukku.tiina.m pi ada.msu.
  3. Kumaariyo sakhiihi saha vaapi.m gantvaa nahaayissanti.
  4. Raajinii diipaa nikkhamma naavaaya gamissati.
  5. Vaanarii itthiyo passitvaa taru.m aaruyha nisiidi.
  6. Taru.nii hatthehi saakha.m aadaaya aaka.d.dhi*.
  7. Tumhe vaapi.m taritvaa** a.tavi.m pavisatha***.
  8. Diipayo a.taviisu .thatvaa migii maaretvaa khaadanti.
  9. Yuvatiina.m pitaro a.taviyaa aagamma bhu~njitvaa sayi.msu.
  10. Hatthinii pokkhara.ni.m oruyha nahaatvaa kadaliyo khaadi.
  11. Siihii migi.m maaretvaa susuuna.m dadissati.
  12. Gaaviyo bhuumiya.m sayitvaa u.t.thahitvaa**** a.tavi.m pavisi.msu.
  13. Mama maatulaanii puttassa dundubhi.m aanessati.
  14. Saku.nii mahiya.m aahi.n.ditvaa aahaara.m labhati.
  15. Kaakii taruno saakhaasu nisiiditvaa ravitvaa***** aakaasa.m u.d.dessanti.

* Pulled; dragged.
** Having crossed.
*** (you) enter.
**** Having risen.
***** Having crowed or having made a noise.

Translate into Pali

  1. Having killed a deer in the forest the lioness ate it.
  2. Having gone to the village the brahman woman bought a hen yesterday.
  3. The damsels went to the tank, and having bathed and played there, came home.
  4. The she-monkey, having climbed the tree, sat on a branch.
  5. The brothers of the girl, having played and bathed, ate rice.
  6. Sisters of the boys, having bought garlands, adorned the neck of the queen.
  7. Having crossed the river, the she-elephant ate plantain (trees) in the garden of a woman.
  8. Having brought a boat, our sisters will cross the tank and enter the forest.
  9. Having cooked rice for the father, the maiden went to the pond with her (female) friends.
  10. Having come from the wood, the damsel's father fell on the ground.
  11. The cows and oxen of the millionaire, having drunk from the tank, entered the forest.
  12. Having bought a drum, the woman's sister gave (it) to her friend.
  13. Having gone to the forest along the river, our brothers killed a lioness.
  14. The queen, having come to the king's tank, bathed there* with her retinue and walked in the garden.
  15. The she-crow, having sat on the branch slept there* after crowing**.

* There = tattha.
** "Ravitvaa" may be used for "after crowing".