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The New Pāli Course Book 1
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Part 9
Part 10
Vocabulary: Pali-English
Vocabulary: English-Pali
For free distribution, as a gift of Dhamma.

The New Pali Course Book 1

Personal Pronouns

20. Two personal pronouns amha and tumha are declined here because of their frequent usage. There are of the common gender and have no vocative forms.

Case Singular Plural
Nom. aha.m = I maya.m, amhe = we
Acc. ma.m, mama.m = me amhe, amhaaka.m, no = us
Ins. mayaa, me amhebhi, amhehi, no
Dat., Gen. mama, mayha.m, me, mama.m amha.m, amhaaka.m, no
Abl. mayaa amhebhi, amhehi
Loc. mayi amhesu
Case Singular Plural
Nom. tva.m, tuva.m = thou tumhe = you
Acc. ta.m, tava.m, tuva.m = thee tumhe, tumhaaka.m, vo = you
Ins. tvayaa, tayaa, te tumhebhi, tumhehi, vo
Dat., Gen. tava, tuyha.m, te tumha.m, tumhaaka.m, vo
Abl. tvayaa, tayaa tumhebhi, tumhehi
Loc. tvayi, tayi tumhesu

N.B. -- Te, me and vo, no should not be used at the beginning of a sentenced.

Note. -- The word for "not" in Pali is na or no; the word for "is not" or "has not" is natthi.

Exercise 7

Translate into English

  1. Aha.m mayha.m puttassa assa.m adadi.m.
  2. Tva.m amhaaka.m gaamaa aagacchasi.
  3. Maya.m tava hatthe passaama.
  4. Mama puttaa giri.m aaruhi.msu.
  5. Tumhaaka.m sunakhaa magge sayi.msu.
  6. Amha.m mittaa cora.m asinaa pahari.msu.
  7. Tumha.m daasaa ariina.m asse hari.msu.
  8. Coro mama puttassa ma.nayo coresi.
  9. Isayo mayha.m gehe na vasi.msu.
  10. Kavi tava puttaana.m dhamma.m desesi.
  11. Amhesu kodho* natthi.
  12. Tumhe vaa.nijassa mayuure ki.nittha.
  13. Maya.m bhuupatino mige vikki.nimha.
  14. Gahapatino putto ma.m pahari.
  15. Adhipatino daasaa mama go.ne pahari.msu.
  16. Aha.m tumhaaka.m viihii na ga.nhi.m.
  17. Diipii gaamamhaa na dhaavi.
  18. Tumhe ahayo na maaretha.
  19. Maya.m atithiina.m odana.m pacimha.
  20. Kapayo ma.m aahaara.m yaaci.msu.

Translate into Pali

  1. I sold my gems to a merchant.
  2. We gave our oxen to the slaves.
  3. You bought a sword from me.
  4. (You) don't beat monkeys with your hands.
  5. The leader brought a lion from the mountain.
  6. The monk preached the doctrine to you.
  7. We gave food to the serpents.
  8. The slaves of the householder carried our paddy.
  9. You did not go to the sea.
  10. There are no gems in my fist.
  11. The poet's son struck the dog with a stick.
  12. Our sons learnt from the sage.
  13. Your monkey fell down from a tree.
  14. My dog went with me to the house.
  15. A serpent bit my son's hand.
  16. The leopard killed a bull on the road.
  17. My friends looked at the lions.
  18. We did not see the king's sword.
  19. I did not go to the deer.
  20. Thou buyest a peacock from the poet.

* kodha = anger (m)

Future Tense

21. Conjugation of Paca (to cook)

Future indicative, Active.

Person Singular Plural
Third (so) pacissati = he will cook (te) pacissanti = they will cook
Second (tva.m) pacissasi = thou wilt cook (tumhe) pacissatha = you will cook
First (aha.m) pacissaami = I shall cook (maya.m) pacissaama = we shall cook

The following are conjugated similarly:-

All verbs given in the Present Tense may be changed into Future by inserting issa between the base and the termination, and dropping the last vowel of the base, e.g. bhu~nja + ti >> bhu~nj + issa + ti = bhu~njissati.

22. Declension of masculine nouns ending in ii

Pakkhii (Bird)

Case Singular Plural
Nom., Voc. pakkhii pakkhii, pakkhino
Acc. pakkhina.m, pakkhi.m pakkhii, pakkhino
Ins. pakkhinaa pakkhiibhi, pakkhiihi
Dat., Gen. pakkhino, pakkhissa pakkhiina.m
Abl. pakkhinaa, pakkhimhaa, pakkhismaa pakkhiibhi, pakkhiihi
Loc. pakkhini, pakkhimhi, pakkhismi.m pakkhiisu

Some of the similarly declined are:-

Exercise 8

Translate into English

  1. Mantii hatthina.m aaruhissati.
  2. Maya.m se.t.thino geha.m gamissaama.
  3. Tva.m saamino puttassa kapi.m dadissasi.
  4. Ga.nino sukhino bhavissanti.
  5. Amhaaka.m saamino diighajiivino na bhavanti.
  6. Paapakaarii ya.t.thinaa bhogi.m maaresi.
  7. Mama puttaa se.t.thino gaame vasissanti.
  8. Ku.t.thii saarathino paada.m ya.t.thinaa pahari.
  9. Sikhii chattimhaa bhaayissati.
  10. Saarathii asse gaamamhaa harissati.
  11. Tumhe maaliihi sasina.m olokessatha.
  12. Balii daa.thino kaaya.m chindissati.
  13. Amhaaka.m mantino balino abhavi.msu.
  14. Se.t.thino maalino passissanti.
  15. Maya.m gehe odana.m bhu~njissaama.

Translate into Pali

  1. Our lord went to the minister.
  2. The millionaire will be the possessor of a long life.
  3. Evil-doers will not become* receivers of comfort.
  4. The tusker will strike the leper.
  5. The minister will get a peacock from the lord.
  6. The charioteer will buy horses for the minister**.
  7. My peacocks will live on the mountain.
  8. The serpents will bite the powerful.
  9. The lord's sons will see the lions of the millionaire.
  10. We will buy a deer from the guest.
  11. The elephant killed a man with (its) feet.
  12. You will not be a millionaire.
  13. The king's sons will eat with the ministers.
  14. The monkeys will not fall from the tree.
  15. I will not carry the elephant of the charioteer.

* "will not become" = na bhavissanti.
** Dative must be used here.

23. Declension of masculine nouns ending in u

Garu (teacher)

Case Singular Plural
Nom., Voc. garu garuu, garavo
Acc. garu.m garuu, garavo
Ins. garunaa garuubhi, garuuhi
Abl. garunaa, garumhaa, garusmaa garuubhi, garuuhi
Dat., Gen. garuno, garussa garuuna.m
Loc. garumhi, garusmi.m garuusu

Some of the similarly declined are:-

* Bhikkhu has an additional form 'bhikkhave' in the vocative plural.

Some nouns of the same ending are differently declined.

24. Bhaatu (brother)

Case Singular Plural
Nom. bhaataa bhaataro
Acc. bhaatara.m bhaatare, bhaataro
Ins., Abl. bhaataraa bhaatarebhi, bhaatarehi, bhaatuubhi, bhaatuuhi
Dat., Gen. bhaatu, bhaatuno, bhaatussa bhaataraana.m, bhaataana.m, bhaatuuna.m
Loc. bhaatari bhaataresu, bhaatusu
Voc. bhaata, bhaataa bhaataro

Pitu (father) is similarly declined.

25. Nattu (grandson)

Case Singular Plural
Nom. nattaa nattaaro
Acc. nattaara.m nattaare, nattaaro
Ins., Abl. nattaaraa nattaarebhi, nattaarehi
Dat., Gen. nattu, nattuno, nattussa nattaaraana.m, nattaana.m
Loc. nattari nattaaresu
Voc. natta, nattaa nattaaro

Some of the similarly declined are:-


26. The prepositions saha (with) and saddhi.m (with) govern the Instrumental case and are usually placed after the word governed by them. The Instrumental alone sometimes gives the meaning "with".

The equivalent to the conjunction "and" is ca in Pali. Api or pi also is sometimes used in the same sense.

The equivalent to "or" is vaa.

Exercise 9

Translate into English

  1. Bandhavo susuuhi saddhi.m amhaaka.m geha.m aaga missanti.
  2. Sattu pharasunaa tava taravo chindissati.
  3. Garu mayha.m susuuna.m ucchavo adadi.
  4. Bhikkhavo nattaaraana.m dhamma.m desessanti.
  5. Tva.m bandhunaa saha sindhu.m gamissasi.
  6. Assaa ca go.naa ca gaame aahi.n.dissanti.
  7. Tumhe pasavo vaa pakkhii vaa na maaressatha.
  8. Maya.m netaarehi saha satthaara.m puujessaama.
  9. Bhaataa ve.lunaa pakkhi.m maaresi.
  10. Amhaaka.m pitaro sattuuna.m ketavo aahari.msu.
  11. Jetaa daataara.m baahunaa pahari.
  12. Satthaa amhaaka.m netaa bhavissati.
  13. Maya.m pitaraa saddhi.m ve.lavo aaharissaama.
  14. Ahayo aakhavo bhu~njanti.
  15. Mama sattavo setumhi nisiidi.msu.
  16. Amha.m bhaataro ca pitaro ca sindhu.m gacchi.msu.
  17. Aha.m mama bhaataraa saha sikhino vikki.nissaami.
  18. Susavo ka.tacchunaa odana.m aahari.msu.
  19. Gaama.m gantaa taruusu ketavo passissati.
  20. Setu.m kattaa gaamamhaa ve.lavo aahari.

Translate into Pali

  1. I shall cut bamboos with my axe.
  2. The teachers will look at the winner.
  3. They carried sugar-canes for the elephants.
  4. Hearers will come to the monks.
  5. Leopards and lions do not live in villages.
  6. I went to see the adviser with my brother.
  7. Our fathers and brothers were merchants.
  8. My brother's son killed a bird with a stick.
  9. Our relations will buy peacocks and birds.
  10. Monkeys and deer live on the mountain.
  11. He struck my grandon's arm.
  12. Enemies will carry (away) our leader's banner.
  13. Builders of the bridges* bought bamboos from the lord.
  14. Rats will fear from the serpents.
  15. I gave rice to my relation.
  16. The giver brought (some) rice with a spoon.
  17. My father's beasts were on the rock.
  18. Our brothers and grandsons will not buy elephants.
  19. The teacher's son will buy a horse or an ox.
  20. My brother or his son will bring a monkey for the young ones.

* Builders of the bridges = setu.m kattaaro or setuno kattaaro.

27. Adjectival nouns ending in -vantu and -mantu are differently declined from the above masculine nouns ending in -u.

  1. They are often used as adjectives; but they become substantives when they stand alone in the place of the person or the thing they qualify.
  2. There are declined in all genders. In the feminine, they change their final vowel, e.g. gu.navatii, siilavatii; gu.navantii, siilavantii.