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The New Pāli Course Book 1
Part 1
Part 2
Part 3
Part 4
Part 5
Part 6
Part 7
Part 8
Part 9
Part 10
Vocabulary: Pali-English
Vocabulary: English-Pali
For free distribution, as a gift of Dhamma.

The New Pali Course Book 1

Passive Voice

67. The verbs given so far in this book are of the Active Voice. To form the passive, one must add "ya", sometimes preceded by i or ii, to the root before the verbal termination, e.g.,

Often, the "ya" is assimilated by the last consonant of the base, e.g.,

68. In forming a sentence with a verb in the passive voice, the subject stands in the Ablative of Agent and the object in the Nominative. The verb takes the number and the person of the Nominative (object).

This is the way Pali grammarians stated it. But in English, the subject always take the Nominative form; therefore the object becomes the subject when a sentence is turned from active to passive.

Vanitaa odana.m pacati.

turned into passive, becomes:-

Vanitaaya odano paciiyati (or paccati).

Here, "vanitaaya" is named anuttakattaa (the agent, subject) and "odano" uttakamma (the object in the Nominative) in Pali.

69. Conjugation of Paca (to cook)

Present Tense, Passive

Person Singular Plural
3rd (so) paccati = it is cooked (te) paccanti = they are cooked
2nd (tva.m) paccasi = thou are cooked (tumhe) paccatha = you are cooked
1st (aha.m) paccaami = I am cooked (maya.m) paccaama = we are cooked

Conjugation of Pahara (to beat)

Person Singular Plural
3rd (so) pahariiyati = he is beaten (te) pahariiyanti = they are beaten
2nd (tva.m) pahariiyasi = thou art beaten (tumhe) pahariiyatha = you are beaten
1st (aha.m) pahariiyaami = I am beaten (maya.m) pahariiyaama = we are beaten

The following are conjugated like "pahariiyati":-

Exercise 26

Translate into English

  1. Ka~n~naaya odano paciiyati.
  2. Te Go.naa daasehi pahariiyanti.
  3. Tva.m balinaa purisena aaka.d.dhiiyasi.
  4. Maya.m amhaaka.m ariihi maariiyaama.
  5. Te migaa taaya daasiyaa bandhiiyanti.
  6. Iminaa va.d.dhakinaa* imasmi.m gaame bahuuni gehaani kariiyanti.
  7. Tumhe tasmi.m gaame manussehi bandhiiyatha.
  8. Amhaaka.m bha.n.daani tesa.m daasehi gaama.m hariiyanti.
  9. A.t.thahi vaa.nijehi cattaaro assaa nagara.m aahariiyanti.
  10. Maya.m amhaaka.m dhiitarehi nattaarehi ca vandiiyaama.
  11. Ta.m mahanta.m khetta.m pa~ncahi kassakehi kasiiyati.
  12. Vanitaaya bahuuni vatthaani tassa.m pokkhara.niya.m dhoviiyanti.
  13. Se.t.thinaa bahunna.m yaacakaana.m daana.m diiyati.
  14. Tasmi.m aaraame vasantehi bhikkhuuhi siilaani rakkhiiyanti.
  15. Chahi bhikkhuuhi pa~ncasataana.m manussaana.m dhammo desiiyati.
  16. Pa~n~naasaaya manussehi tasmi.m aapa.ne bahuuni bha.n.daani ki.niiyanti.
  17. Dasahi vanitaahi dvisata.m ambaana.m vikki.niiyati.
  18. Daasiyaa pakko odano gahapatinaa bhu~njiiyati.
  19. Magge .thito daarako tassa maatuyaa hatthehi ga.nhiiyati.
  20. Buddhena devaana.m manussaana~nca dhammo bhaasiiyati.

* Va.d.dhakii (m) carpenter.

Translate into Pali

  1. The cows are tied with long ropes by the slaves.
  2. Two black horses are bought by the two rich men.
  3. You are beaten by four men.
  4. This house is built (made) by eight carpenters.
  5. Nine cows are killed by two tigers in that forest.
  6. Thou art dragged to the field by those powerful men.
  7. Many goods are sold in this village by those two merchants.
  8. You are tied fast by the people of the city.
  9. The baby is carried to a physician by his mother.
  10. The rice is well cooked by the second daughter of the merchant.
  11. The doctrine is preached to the people of this village by the monks residing in that monastery*.
  12. The rice cooked by the slave woman is eaten by her son and brothers.
  13. Many red clothes are washed in the tank by those women.
  14. Three hundred mangoes are sold by six tall women.
  15. Much wealth is given to his relations by that rich man.
  16. All grass in this field is eaten by eight oxen and four cows.
  17. The Buddha is worshipped everywhere in this island.
  18. Two fields are ploughed by 12 farmers and six oxen.
  19. Those who went by that path are killed by a lion.
  20. The son of the man who walks on the road is beaten by that powerful man.

* Vihaara (m) monastery.

70. The past and future forms of the Passive Voice are formed by adding "ii + ya" to the root before the verbal termination, e.g.,

Past 3rd singular:
- pahara + ii > pahara + ii-ya + ii = pahariiyii = (he) was beaten

Future 3rd singular:
- paca + issati > paca + ii-ya + issati = paciiyissati = (it) will be cooked

Passive Participles

71. The participles, like verbs, are divided into two classes, that of Active and Passive. The Active Present Participles are shown above (§50). The Passive Present Participle is formed by adding "ii + ya" to the root before the active termination, e.g.,

(1) paca + maana > paca + ii-ya + maana = paciiyamaana = being cooked

(2) pahara + nta > pahara + ii-ya + nta = pahariiyanta = being beaten

Forms like pacamaana (being cooked) and vuccamaana (being told) also are formed by assimilating "ya" with the last consonant of the root. (The rules of assimilation will be given in the Second Book.)

72. The Declinable Active Past Participles are very few. The Passive Past Participles are formed in various ways; the most common way to form them is to add "ta" or "ita" to the root or the verbal base, e.g.,

Here one notices that "ita" is added to the roots ending in a, and ta is added to the roots ending in vowels other than a. But this rule is not without exceptions.

A list of some Passive Past Participles is given above (§53). The words therein are formed in various ways; but the student should not bother at present about their formation.

Another form of Passive Past Participles much common in use is formed by adding 'inna' to the root and by dropping the last syllable or the vowel of the root, e.g.,

73. The Potential (or Future) Passive Participles are formed by adding 'tabba' and 'aniiya' to the verbal base, e.g.,

Exercise 27

Translate into English

  1. Ka~n~naaya bhu~njiyamaana.m bhatta.m sunakhassa daatabba.m (hoti).
  2. Purisena chindiyamaano rukkho gehassa upari patissati.
  3. Purisehi khettaani kasitabbaani, vanitaahi tesa.m bhatta.m pacitabba.m.
  4. Puttehi dhiitarehi ca pitaro maataro ca vanditabbaa honti.
  5. Daasena hariiyamaano asso vaa.nijaana.m vikki.nitabbo hoti.
  6. Corehi pahariiyamaanaa purisaa a~n~na.m kattabba.m adisvaa* a.tavi.m dhaavi.msu.
  7. Saarathinaa pahariiyamaano asso ratha.m aaka.d.dhanto siigha.m dhaavati.
  8. Tumhehi daanaani daatabbaani, siilani rakkhitabbaani, pu~n~naani kaatabbaani (honti).
  9. Sissehi dhammo sotabbo** satthaani*** ugga.nhitabbaani.
  10. Mayaa diiyamaana.m**** bhu~njitabba.m bhu~njitu.m bahuu yaacakaa aagacchanti.
  11. Vanitaa dhovitabbaani vatthaani aadaaya vitthata.m nadi.m gamissati.
  12. Yuvatiyo vandaniiyaani cetiyaani disvaa ekaaya ka~n~naaya ociniyamaanaani padumaani yaaci.msu.
  13. Mama bhaataa tasmi.m vane aahi.n.danto chindaniiye bahuu rukkhe passi.
  14. Mayaa ovadiyamaano baalo vattabba.m apassanto khinno***** nisiidi.

* Not seeing.
** Should be heard.
*** Sciences.
**** Given by.
***** Dejected.

Translate into Pali

  1. The fruit that is being eaten by the boy should not be given to another one.
  2. The field should be ploughed by the farmers with their oxen.
  3. Being beaten by an enemy and not knowing what should be done*, the man ran across the field.
  4. Many beggars came to receive the alms given by the rich merchant.
  5. Your parents** are to be worshipped and protected by you.
  6. Being admonished*** by the teacher the student began to learn what should be learnt.
  7. The horses that are being carried by the merchants are to be sold tomorrow.
  8. Ths horse being beaten by the slave ran quickly to the field.
  9. Precepts should be oberved and alms should be given by you.
  10. Many clothes are to be washed by our friends.
  11. Ten men cut many trees that should be cut in that garden.
  12. The trees which are being cut by them will fall on other trees.
  13. The merchants did not get any food that should be eaten by them.
  14. What should happen will happen**** to us and the others.
  15. The rice is to be cooked and carried to the field by us.

* Kim kaatabban ti ajaananto.
** Maataapitaro (is a compound noun).
*** Ovadito.
**** Bhavissati = will happen.

Causal or Causative Verbs

74. Causative verbs are formed by adding to the root the suffixes, (1) e, (2) aya, (3) aape, or (4) aapaya, before the verbal termination. The radical vowel of the root is lengthened or changed before these suffixes, when it is followed by one consonant, and remains unchanged if it is followed by a double consonant, e.g.,

N.B. -- There is a similarity between 'paaceti', 'paacayati' and 'coreti', 'corayati'; but the former are causal and the latter are simple verbs.

75. The group of verbs 'coreti', etc., called Curaadi Group (see §15), always take 'e' and 'aya' in their simple forms and their causal bases are formed with 'aape' and 'aapaya', e.g.,

76. (A) Intransitive verbs become transitive when they take causal forms, e.g.,

(B) Transitive verbs take one or two more objects in their causal forms, e.g.,

77. A list of causatives

Exercise 28

Translate into English

  1. Se.t.thii va.d.dhaki.m geha.m kaaraapeti.
  2. Maataa daaraka.m pokkhara.niya.m nahaapessati.
  3. Amhaaka.m pitaro bhikkhuu bhojaapesu.m.
  4. Vanitaayo daasi.m bhatta.m paacaapesu.m.
  5. Paapakaarino daasehi* bahuu mige maaraapenti.
  6. Gahapatayo purisehi* daaruuni ga.nhaapenti.
  7. Garu sisse dhamma.m ugga.nhaapesi.
  8. Adhipati purisehi rukkhe chindaapessati.
  9. Aha.m ka~n~naahi bha.n.daani aaharaapessaami.
  10. Tumhe bhaatarehi kapayo gaama.m haraapetha.
  11. Maya.m dasahi go.nehi khetta.m kasaapessaama.
  12. Maataa putta.m pii.the nisiidaapetvaa bhatta.m pacitu.m ta.n.dule** aaharaapesi.

* Instrumental is also used with the causal forms.
** ta.n.dula (m, n) (uncooked) rice.

Translate into Pali

  1. The sinner causes his brothers to kill birds.
  2. The rich men make their sons gave alms.
  3. The king makes the carpenters build five houses.
  4. The charioteer makes the slave bring two horses near the chariot.
  5. The women get their daughters cook rice for the guests.
  6. The carpenter gets the work* done by the servants.
  7. The leader gets his men cut many trees in his garden.
  8. They will get the field ploughed by 20 oxen.
  9. I will make my son eat some food.
  10. We will cause our slaves to go to the town.
  11. They make the cows eat grass.
  12. Do not allow him do that work*.

* work = kamma (n), kammanta (m).