An Elementary Pali Course Lesson XVI
Exercise 16-A: Translate into English.
1. Cattaar'imaani, bhikkhave, saccaani.
four - these / monks / truths
Monks, these (are) the four truths.
2. "Eka.m naama ki.m?"
one / by name / which
"Which is the one?"
3. Tiisu lokesu sattaa uppajjanti.
in three / in worlds / living beings / are born
Living beings are born in the three worlds.
4. Ekasmi.m hatthe pa~nca a.nguliyo honti.
on one / on hand / five / fingers / (there) are
There are five fingers on one hand.
5. Ito sattame divase aha.m gamissaami.
from now / on seventh / on day / I / shall go
I shall go on the seventh day from now.
Alt: I shall go in seven days' time.
6. Maya.m tii.ni vassaani imasmi.m gaame vasimhaa.
we / three / years / in this / in village / lived
We lived in this village (for) three years.
7. Aya.m pana imasmi.m potthake so.lasamo paricchedo hoti.
this / but / in this / in book / sixteenth / chapter / is
This is but the sixteenth chapter in this book.
8. "Buddha.m sara.na.m* gacchaami.
[to] Buddha / [for/as] refuge / (I) go
I go to the Buddha for/as refuge.
Dutiyam'pi** Buddha.m sara.na.m gacchaami.
for second time-and / [to] Buddha / [for/as] refuge / (I) go
And for the second time, I go to the Buddha for/as refuge.
Tatiyam'pi Buddha.m sara.na.m gacchaami.
for third time-and / [to] Buddha / [for/as] refuge / (I) go
And for the third time, I go to the Buddha for/as refuge.
9. So tassa ti.n.na.m puttaana.m cattaari cattaari katvaa dvaadasa phalaani adaasi.
he / his / to three / to sons / four / four / having done / twelve / fruits / gave
He gave the twelve fruits to his three sons, four for each.
10. Etasmi.m ghare catasso itthiyo vasanti.
in that / in house / four / women / live
The four women live in that house.
11. Yo pa.thama.m aagaccheyya so pa.n.naakaara.m labheyya.
who / first / should come / he / prize / should receive
Lit: He who should come first would receive the prize.
Who first should come, he the prize should receive.
Alt: The one who comes first should receive the prize.
12. Imasmi.m ghare aya.m tatiyaa bhuumi.
in this / in house / this / third / level
This (is) the third level in this house.
13. Antimena paricchedena gahapatiihi pa~nca siilaani rakkhitabbaani.
in last / in resort / by householders / five / precepts / should be observed
At least the five precepts should be observed by the householders.
14. Gu.navanto sadaa pa~nca siilaani ca a.t.thamiya.m catuddasiya.m
pa~ncadasiya.m ca a.t.tha siilaani rakkhanti.
virtuous ones / always / five / precepts / and / on eighth / on fourteenth / on fifteenth / and / eight / precepts / observe
The virtuous ones always observe the five precepts; and the eight precepts on the
eighth, fourteenth and fifteenth.
15. Bhikkhuu pan'eva dvisata sattaviisati sikkhaapadaani rakkhanti.
monks / further-even / two hundred / twenty seven / rules / observe
The monks even observe a further two hundred and twenty seven rules.
16. Tassa se.t.thino catupa.n.naasako.ti dhana.m atthi.
of that / of millionaire / 54 crore / wealth / there is
That millionaire has 54 crore (of) wealth.
Lit: There is 54 crore wealth of that millionaire.
17. Ekasmi.m maase ti.msa divasaa honti.
in one / in month / thirty / days / are
In one month, there are thirty days.
Ekasmi.m vasse pana tisata pa~ncasa.t.thi divasaa honti.
in one / in year / however / three hundred / sixty five / days / are
In one year, however, there are three hundred and sixty five days.
18. Imaaya paa.thasaalaaya pa~ncasataani sissaa ugga.nhanti.
in this / in school / five hundred / students / study
Five hundred students study in this school.
* sara.na.m is an idiomatic representation of sara.nanti, an indeclinable
compound. Please refer to Ven. Pandita's explanation here: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Pali/message/7063
** dutiya.m (adv.) for the second time; api (ind.) and, too.
Exercise 16-B: Translate into Pali.
1. I gave him four books.
aha.m / adaasi.m / tassa / cattaari / potthakaani
Aha.m tassa cattaari potthakaani adaasi.m.
2. He lived three days in our house.
so / vasi / tii.ni / divasaani / amhaaka.m / ghare
So tii.ni divasaani amhaaka.m ghare vasi.
3. We have two eyes, but only one mouth.
Lit: We have two eyes, and also one mouth.
amhaaka.m / dve / cakkhuuni / ca / api / eka.m / mukha.m
Amhaaka.m dve cakkhuuni, api ca eka.m mukha.m.
4. There are thirty days in one month, and twelve months in one year.
honti / ti.msa / divasaa / ekasmi.m / maase / pana / dvaadasaa / maasaa / ekasmi.m / vasse
Ekasmi.m maase ti.msa divasaa honti, ekasmi.m vasse pana dvaadasaa
5. They are now studying the twelfth chapter of the book.
te / idaani / ugga.nhanti / dvaadasama.m / pariccheda.m / potthakassa
(Te) idaani potthakassa dvaadasama.m pariccheda.m ugga.nhanti.
6. Which of these two presents would you take?
ki.m / imesa.m / dvinna.m / pa.n.naakaaraana.m / tva.m / ga.nheyyaasi
Imesa.m dvinna.m pa.n.naakaaraana.m ki.m tva.m ga.nheyyaasi?
7. The child bought three mangoes, ate one and took two home.
daarako / ki.nitvaa / tayo / ambe / bhu~njitvaa / eka.m / hari / dve / ghara.m
Daarako tayo ambe ki.nitvaa eka.m bhu~njitvaa dve ghara.m hari.
8. He will come on the 28th day of this month.
so / aagamissati / a.t.tha-viisatime / divase / imassa / maasassa
So imassa maasassa a.t.tha-viisatime divase aagamissati.
9. They took the Three Refuges and the Five Precepts today.
Lit: They took the Threefold Refuge together with the Five Precepts today.
te / yaaci.msu (requested) / tisara.nena saha / pa~ncasiilaani / ajja
Te ajja tisara.nena saha pa~ncasiilaani yaaci.msu.
10. There were two hundred patients in the hospital yesterday.
aasu.m / dve sataani / gilaanaa / gilaanasaalaaya.m / hiiyo
Hiiyo dve sataani gilaanaa gilaanasaalaaya.m aasu.m.
11. Seven days hence my father will come to see me.
sattame / divase / ito / me / janako / aagamissati / passitu.m / mama.m
Ito* sattame divase me janako mama.m passitu.m aagamissati.
12. Some householders observe the ten precepts on the fifteenth day.
eke / gahapatiyo / rakkhanti / dasa / siilaani / pa.n.narasame / divase
Eke gahapatiyo pa.n.narasame divase dasa siilaani rakkhanti.
13. If you do evil, you will be born in the four evil states.
sace / tva.m / kareyyaasi / papa.m / tva.m / uppajjeyyasi** /
catusu / duggatiisu
Sace (tva.m) papa.m kareyyaasi tva.m catusu duggatiisu uppajjeyyasi.
14. If you do good, you will be born in the seven states of happiness.
sace / tva.m / kareyyaasi / puñña.m / tva.m / uppajjeyyasi** /
satte / sugatiisu
Sace (tva.m) puñña.m kareyyaasi tva.m satte sugatiisu uppajjeyyasi.
15. He gave five hundred and received thousand.
so / datvaa / pa~nca / sataani / labhi / sahassa.m
So pa~nca sataani datvaa sahassa.m labhi.
16. She brought three presents for her three little sisters.
saa / aahari / tayo / pa.n.naakaare / tassaa / tissanna.m / taru.naana.m / bhaginiina.m
Saa tassaa tissanna.m taru.naana.m bhaginiina.m tayo pa.n.naakaare
17. My age is eighteen years.
mayha.m / aayu / hoti / a.t.thadasa / vassaa
Mayha.m aayu a.t.thadasa vassaa hoti.
18. In his 29th year he left home, and endeavouring for six years he understood the Four Truths and became a Fully Enlightened One in his thirty-fifth year.
(tassa) / ek'uuna-ti.msatime / vasse / (so) / nikkhamma / gharasmaa / vaayamitvaa / cha / vassaani / so / bujjhitvaa / cattaari / saccaani
/ bhavi / Sammaa-sambuddho / (tassa) / pa~nca-ti.msatime / vasse
Ek'uuna-ti.msatime vasse gharasmaa nikkhamma, cha vassaani vaayamitvaa, cattaari saccaani bujjhitvaa, so
pa~nca-ti.msatime vasse Sammaa-sambuddho bhavi.***
After becoming a Buddha He preached the Doctrine for forty-five years.
hutvaa / Buddho / so / desesi / Dhamma.m /
pa~nca-cattaa.liisa / vassaani
Buddho hutvaa so pa~nca-cattaa.liisa vassaani Dhamma.m desesi.
* It is more common to place 'ito' before the length of time. See also
** In this sentence where the optative is used, it is quite common in Pali for the optative case to be used in both the subordinate clause and the main clause. See pg. 87, last paragraph, of
*** We could also use "sammaasambodhi.m abhisambujjhi", which is the
phrase used in the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta. The verb abhisambujjhati seems
to be used often to describe "becoming" enlightened. Please see the
Mahaaparinibbaanasutta, Sariputtasiihanaado, where the root "bhuu" is
used to mean "will be buddhas", "thus will be their
morality", etc., whereas "sammaasambodhi.m abhisambujjhi.msu" is
used to mean "attained to surpreme enlightenment" (cp Walshe p. 235).