A Practical Grammar of the PŒli Language
Chapter 13


558. We have now come to a most important part of the grammar; the formation of nouns and adjectives otherwise called Derivation.

559. In PŒli, almost every declinable stem can be traced back to a primary element called a Root.

560. A root is a primitive element of the language incapable of any grammatical analysis, and expressing an abstract idea. It is common in European languages to express the idea contained in the root by means of the infinitive, e.g. gam, to go, but it must be borne in mind that the root is not an infinitive, nor indeed a verb or noun, but simply a primary element expressing a vague indefinite idea. This indefinite idea is developed out of the root and is made to ramify into a diversity of meanings, both abstract and concrete, by means of suffixes.

561. The roots of the PŒli language, with slight variations in form, easily recognizable to the trained eye, are common with those of Sanskrit and consequently with many of the roots of the lndo-European Languages.

562. Every true root is monosyllabic as: nas, to perish; bhŒ, to shine; ruh, to grow; pac, to cook. Roots which have more than one syllable are the result of (a) the union of a verbal prefix with the root itself, both having become inseparable in the expression of a particular idea; for instance: sagam: to fight, =sam+gam, lit, to come together, to close in upon; and (b) of reduplication (372ff) as jŒgar, to be wakeful, from gar (Sanks. gr) to awake.

563. There are two great divisions of Derivation:
(i) kita (kt), or Primary.
(ii) taddhita, or Secondary.

564. Primary Derivatives are formed from the root itself and Secondary Derivatives from the Primary Derivatives.

565. Native grammarians recognise a third derivation, which they call uŒdi (u+Œdi), from the suffix u by which a few words are derived. But the uŒdi derivation is very arbitrary, and the connection between the noun and the root is not clear, either in meaning or in form. These uŒdi derivatives are included in the kita Derivation; uŒdi suffixes are therefore included in the kita-Suffixes and will be distinguished by an asterisk (*).

566. We shall therefore in the present chapter, treat of Primary and Secondary derivation. A few hints only will be given on the uŒdi derivation.

567. When Suffixes, both primary (kita) and secondary (taddhita) are added to roots, nouns or adjectives gua (103) frequently takes place; that is, a may be lengthened to Œ, and i and u be respectively changed to e and o.

568. Whenever gua takes place by the addition of a suffix, native grammarians put an indicatory sign before or after the suffix to show that gua is to take place; this indicatory sign is generally the letter and sometimes the letter r. For instance: cur, to steal, +suffix a=cora, a thief. Here, the true suffix is a, the letter being simply indicatory that guna change must take place; again, kar, to do, +a=kŒra, a doer. But kar +suffix a=kara, a doer; in this last example no guna takes place and therefore , the suffix has not the indicatory sign. This sign is called by grammarians: anubandha. It is therefore clear that the anubandha or "indicatory sign of guna" is not part of the suffix.

569. European grammarians as a rule do not note the anubandha, but in this book it will be noted and put within brackets, and in small type, after the true suffix, thus: ()a, or kŒ(). the true suffixes will come first, printed in bold type.

570. Again, some suffixes are shown by native grammarians by means of some conventional signs; e.g. vu is the conventional sign for suffix aka; yu is that for ana. Such conventional signs will be shown within brackets, after the true suffix, as; ana(yu); this means that ana is the true suffix, yu the conventional sign used by native grammarians to represent the suffix ana.

571. It must be remembered that sometimes even some of the prefixes explained in (514) undergo gua as: virajja+ka=virajjaka; paipada+()a=pŒipŒda; vinaya+()ika=venayika.

572. Before some suffixes, (generally those with the indicatory final c of the root is changed to k, and final j to g; as pac+()a=pŒka, a cook; ruj+()a=roga, disease.

573. The final vowel of a stem may be elided before a suffix.

574. The rules of sandhi and assimilation are regularly applied.

(i) Primary Derivatives (kita)

575. As has been said already Primary Derivatives are formed directly from the roots by means of certain suffixes; these suffixes are called kita suffixes.

576. The kita suffixes are given below in alphabetical order to faciliate reference.

a- (a) () (a). By means of this suffix are formed an extremely large number of derivatives, some of which take gua and some of which do not. It forms nouns, (substantive and adjective) showing:

1st-action: pac, to cook+a=pŒka, the act of cooking; caj, to forsake+a=cŒga, forsaking, abandonment; bhaj, to divide+a=bhŒga, dividing; kam, to love+a=kŒma, love.

2nd- the doer or agent: car, to roam+a=cŒra and cara, a spy; har, to take, captivate,+a=hara, the Captivator, a name of Shiva; kar, to do, make+a=kara, that which does, the hand; also kŒra, a doer, maker.

3rd- abstract nouns of action: kar+a=kara, action, making; kam to step, proceed+a=kama, step, succession, order; kamp, to shake+a=kampa, shaking, trembling; yuj, to join+a=yoga, joining.

4th- It forms adjectives: kar+a=kŒra, doing, making, also kara, causing, making; car, to walk, roam, cŒra, walking, roaming, and also cara, do; plu, to swim, float+a=plava, swimming, floating.

The student will readily understand that the root may be preceded by any prefix:
gŒma, assembly; pa+vis, to enter+a=pavesa, entrance; anu+sar to go, move, walk+a=anusara, following. The same remark applies to all the other suffixes.

577. From the adjectives formed by this suffix (4th), are formed the upapada compounds (552):
Œro=kamma kŒro (kamma karot'ti), the doer of the act; kumbhakŒro=khumbha kŒro (kumbha karot'ti), the maker of the pot, potter.

578. Very similar in nature with the upapada compounds are those compounds which are the names of persons. In our opinion they are purely and simply upapadas, but KacchŒyana has the following rule: "sa––Œya a nu" that is, to form a proper name, suffix nu (==Accus. case) is added to the 1st member of the compound, which is the direct object of the root which forms the 2nd member and after which the suffix a is added to denote the agent: arindama, the subduer of his enemies=ari, enemy +(nu)+dam, to subdue+a. So vessantara, who has crossed over to the merchants, (vessa +(nu)+tar, to cross+a); tahakara, creating desire=tanhŒ, desire +(nu)+kar+a. The name of a Buddha.

It will be seen from the above examples that the 1st member is in the Acc. case and is governed by the 2nd member which is an agent-noun formed by the suffix a.

Remark. The nouns formed by a are masculine: they form the feminine according to rules (183), and the same applies to the adjectives (197).

abha*- Used to form the names of some animals; the derivation is obscure. kalabha, or kaabha, a young elephant, from kal, to drive, to sound; usabha, a bull from us, (Sansk. ), to go, flow, push; sarabha, a fabulous eight-legged kind of deer, from sar (Sansk. ), to injure, break, tear; karabha, a camel, from kar, to do.

aka (v)-forms a numerous class of action-nouns and adjectives with gua of the radical vowel:
kar, to make, do+aka=karaka, making, causing or maker, doer; gah, to take, receive+aha=gahaka, taking, receiving, a receiver: sometimes a -y is inserted between aka and a root ending in a vowel, especially long
Œ: dŒ, to give +aka=dŒyaka, a giver.
Remark. The feminine of these derivatives is generally in k
Œ or ikŒ.

ala*-forming a few nouns of doubtful derivation from, it is said, the roots: pa, to split, slit;
kus, to heap, bring together, cut; kal, to drive, sound, throw, etc.; paala, covering, membrane, roof; kusala, that which is capable of cutting sin, meritorious act. These nouns are neuter.

an- only a few words are derived from this suffix: rŒj, to rule +an=rŒjan, a king, ruler.
Remark. Nouns in an have the Nom. Sing. in

ana (yu)- this suffix forms an immense number of derivative nouns and adjectives. The nouns are neuter, or fem. in Œ; the adjectives are of the three genders. Gua may or may not take place; it is however, more common with the adjectives. Nouns: pac, to cook +ana=pacana, the cooking; gah, to take +ana=gahaa, the seizing, taking; hŒ, to stand +ana=hŒna, a place. Adjectives: pa+nud, to push, move +ana=panudano, removing, dispelling; ghus, to sound +ana=ghosano, sounding; kudh, to be angry +ana=kodhano, angry. The fem. of these adjectives is sometimes in Œ, sometimes in . Fem. sev, to serve, stay by +ana=sevanŒ, also, sevana, service, following; kar, to execute +ana=kŒranŒ, agony, torture.

as- This suffix forms a not very large, but important class of words, which have already been explained (160); gua sometimes takes place; they are declined like manas (59); their Nom. Sing. is in o. vac, to say, speak +as=vacas (vaco), speech, word; tij, to be sharp +as=tejas (tejo), sharpness, splendour.

Œni*-Rarely found, it properly does not form nouns, but a vituperative negative imperative, with the prohibitive particle a (242, a) before the root, and a dative of the person who is forbidden to act: agamŒni=a+gam+Œni, you are not to go! as in "paradesa te agamŒni", "You are not to go elsewhere!" "te ida kamma akarŒni (a+kar+Œni).

Œvi=vi (tŒvi)- is used as has already been seen, to form participles (231) so also:

Œna (448), also at, ant=nta (440) so that the Perf. Active, the Pres. Active and the Reflective Participles are considered by native grammarians as coming under the head of kita Derivatives. The same remark applies to the P.P.P.

dhu- so given by native grammarians is, properly adhu; it forms but a few derivatives and is only another form of thu=athu (see below).

i- Forms a large class of derivatives, Masc., Fem. and Neuter, as well as a few adjectives. The nouns may be agent-nouns or abstract. But the derivation is not always quite clear (principally of neuter nouns), hence, some grammars include this suffix among the uŒdi. Strengthening takes place in a few roots. Masc.: ku, to sound sing+i=kavi, one who sings=a poet; mun=man to think+i=muni, one who thinks=a sage. Fem. lip, to smear, rub+i=lipi, a rubbing over, writing; ruc, to shine, to please+i=ruci, light, pleasure. Neut.: akkhi, eye; aggi, fire, ahi, bone, and a few others, of very doubtful derivation. Adj. suc, to beam, glow, burn+i=suci, beaming, clear, pure.

By means of this suffix is formed from dhŒ, to bear, hold, a derivative: dhi, which forms many compounds, mostly masculine: sam+dhi=sandhi, connection, union (in grammar=euphony); udadhi, the ocean=uda, water+dhi, holding (uda+dhŒ+i); others are: nidhi, a receptacle (ni+dhŒ+i); paridhi, circle, halo (pari+dhŒ+i).

Similarly, from, dŒ to give with prefix Œ, we obtain: Œdi (=Œ+dŒ+i)=and so forth, and so on, etc, lit.=beginning. The word Œdi is much used at the end of compounds.

icca (ricca), and iriya(ririya),-are given by kacchŒyana as kita prefixes, but in reality they are not: both are suffixes of the F.P.P. (466); they are found only in the two examples: kicca and kiriya, (lit., what is to be done) business: kar+icca=kicca (with elision of radical a and of r) kar+iriya=kiriya with elision of radical a and of r). But the true derivation* is kar+tya=kitya (with elision of ar and insertion of i)=kicca, according to the usual rules (74). *Sans. k+tya=ktya ; k+ya=kya=kriya.

ika- is given for the only root: gam, to go: gamika, one who goes.

in= ()- This forms a very great number of derivatives whose stem ends in in, and the Nom. Sing. (see 137, 173); they are properly possessive adjectives, sometimes used substantively. Gua as a rule takes place. gah, to take, receive+in=gŒhin (gŒhi), taking, catching; kra+in=kŒrin (kŒr), doing; pŒpakŒr, a sinner: yŒ, to go, yŒyin (yŒy), going; nagarayŒy, going to the town; dŒ, to give, dŒyin, (dŒy), giving, a giver. Note that a y is inserted between the suffix and the roots ending in Œ long. The Feminine is formed according to rules (189).

ina- A few nouns are formed by this suffix; there is no gua: sup, to sleep+ina =supina (Neut.), a dream, sleep. The derivation of some nouns and adjectives from this suffix is not apparent and clear, and it is also classed as an uŒdi; dakkh, to be able, skilful+ina=dakkhia, able, southern.

ira-The derivitives from this, nouns and adjectives, are few; there is no gua: ruc, to shine +ira=rucira, brilliant, beautiful; vaj, to be strong +ira=vajira, thunderbolt.

iya, iha- are the suffixes used for the comparison of adjectives (238).

isa*-forms a few nouns, mostly Masc., of rather obscure derivation: pr, to fill+isa=purisa, a man, person; sun, to oppress+isa=sunisa, an oppressor; il, to shake, come+isa=ilisa, one who shakes; mah to be great+isa=mahisa, mighty, a buffalo.

itta* (itta)- is said to express multitude (?): the root is guated: vad, to speak, to play (music)+itta=vŒditta, the multitude of those that play music, an orchestra. This suffix and its derivatives are incomprehensible; but see -tta, -tra where its probable formation will be explained.

vara*-forms a few Neut. nouns of doubtful connection with the roots from which they are derived: ci, to gather, to depend upon+vara=cvara, a monk's garment, that which is heaped upon or depended upon; pŒ, to drink+vara=pvara, beverage, that which is to be drunk.

ka is added to very few roots which take gua; it forms agent-nouns and adjectives: vad, to speak+ka=vŒdaka, one who speaks, a musician; playing (adj.); dah, to burn+ka=dŒhaka, burning (adj.). Note that these two words would be better derived from suffix aka (see above) sukh (Sansk. cus)+ka=sukkha, dry, dried up; thu (Sansk. stu) to dribble, drop+ka=thoka, a little, ka often takes a connecting vowel i or u before a root, and forms the suffixes ika, uka (see also).

la generally with connecting vowels: a, or i before it. la is but another form of ra (see also): thu, to be thick, strong+la=thla, thick, fat; cap to waver, tremble+(a) la=capala, tremulous, fickle, giddy; pŒ, to keep, guard+la=pala, a guardian; an, to breathe, blow softly+(i) la=anila, wind, breeze.

lŒa- as well as yŒa given as primary suffixes, are not at all suffixes; the true suffix is Œa, which is a taddhita suffix (see also).

ma- forms some abstract nouns, agent-nouns, and some adjectives: bh, to fear, be afraid of +ma=bhma, terrible, fearful; ghar (sansk. ghr) to be warm, to glow+ma=gharma=ghamma, heat, warmth. (Note the assimilation of r (80); thu, to praise, thoma, praise; dh, to shake, move hither and thither+ma=dhma smoke. This suffix, in PŒli, becomes nearly confounded with the next: man, and native grammarians are often at a loss in choosing between these two suffixes: the reason is that no word in PŒli being allowed to end in a consonant, they have included the stems in an in the vowel declension (152, 156-c, 157-a).

man- (given as ramma as well as man by kacchŒyana) forms action nouns, Masc. and Neuter; in a few cases the noun being both Masc. and Neut.; the stems are in an the Nom, in Œ, o, or :
dhar; to hold, bear+man=dhammo, dhamma
, nature, characteristic, duty, the Law;
, action, karma (Note the assimilation of r), bh to fear+man=bhemo, fearful, terrible; khi, to destroy, make an end of+ma=khemo, secure, peaceful, khema, safety, happiness. Most of the derivatives from man, have migrated to the class of those formed by the last suffix (ma).

mŒna- This is the suffix of the Pres. Part. Reflective already seen (447). (See, Œna, above).

mi- The number of derivatives from this suffix is very restricted, they are Masc. or Fem. There is no gua. bh, to exist, become+mi=bhmi, the earth, ground, a place; u (sansk. v), to roll, turn from side to side+mi=mi (rmi, note the elision of radical r), a wave.

na- The use of this suffix in forming a certain number of P.P.P. has been explained (458); it also forms a few nouns; the root takes no gua, but through assimilation, the root is not always recognisable: var, to cover enclose+na=vaa (80, 83), colour, external appearance; sup (Sansk. svap) to sleep+na=soppa (=S. svapna), sleep; phar (also phur=S. sphur, sphr), to shake, to make a jerky motion+na=paa a feather, wing. From tŒs (S. trs), tahŒ, thirst, craving; ji, to conquer+na=jina, conqueror.

Connected with this na, are the suffixes ina, una (see also); also: tana, (=S. tna), from this last is derived the word ratana, gift, blessing, jewel, from rŒ, to bestow+tna=tana (note that radical Œ is shortened through the influence of the double consonant to tna see 34).

ni- from this we obtain but a few nouns. Fem. hŒ, to quit, forsake+ni=hŒni, abandonment, loss, decay; yu, to fasten, to unite+ni=yoni, womb, origin, a form of existence.

nu- forms a few words mostly Masc., some abstract and some concrete: bhŒ. to shine, to be bright+nu=bhŒnu, beam, light, the sun; dhe, to drink+nu=dhenu, yielding milk, a milk-cow.

ta 1-This suffix has been explained in the formation of the P. P. P. (450). It also forms a few concrete nouns: d, to go far, to a certain distance+ta=duta, messenger; s to impel, to set in motion+ta=sta, a charioteer. The student will remark that even these nouns look very much like P.P.P. (see. 452 remarks). The suffix ita, also connected with the- P.P.P. (452, ii), forms a few derivatives of doubtful connection with roots: palita, grey; lohita, red; harita, green, etc.

ta 2 (S.- tas)- forms a few nouns su to go, pass+ta=sota, a stream; su, to hear+tar:sota, the ear.

tŒ (ritu, rŒtu) (S. tr or tar)- This suffix forms a pretty large number of agent-nouns; See (162).
Remark that the base is in u, and the nominative in
Œ; mŒ, to measure, mete out (food, etc.)+tŒ=matŒ, mother; vad, to speak, say+tŒ=vattŒ, one who says, tells, a speaker.

ti- This forms a very numerous class of action nouns, Fem., agent-nouns, and a limited number of adjectives. Fem: bhaj, to divide+ti=bhatti(=bhakti, 426 remark, 59, a), division; kitt, to praise+ti=kitti (with one t dropped), praise; gam, go+ti=gati, (456), a going, journey. From muc, mutti, deliverance; from man, to think, mati (455), thought, etc. Adj.: hŒ, stand, last+ti=hiti, lasting; pad, to go, step+ti=patti (64), going, a foot soldier.

tu 1- This is properly the suffix of the Infinitive, which has become an Accusative (363-i): but it also forms nouns chiefly Masc., but of the other genders too: dhŒ, to lay, put+tu=dhŒtu, Masc, and Fem., that which lay (at the bottom), a primary element, a root, principle; tan, to stretch+tu=tantu, a thread, Masc; si, to bind+tu=setu, a tie, bridge.

tu 2- The same as tŒ (ritu rŒtu) above.

tra, ta (tran, ta)- forms a large number of derivatives chiefly denoting the agent, and concrete nouns: chad, to cover over+tra, ta=chatra, chatta, an umbrella (in chatra d has been dropped to avoid the collocation of three consonants; in chatta it is assimilated); gΠ(a collateral form of ga), to move+tra, ta=gatta, limb; n, to lead+tra, ta=netra, netta, the eye, that which leads.

tha- The derivatives from this are not very numerous: gŒ, to sing+tha=gŒthŒ, a song, stanza, verse; tar (S. tr), to cross+tha=tittha, ford, landing place (with connecting i).

thu and also dhu- give only a few derivatives, and have generally the form atthu, adhu. vip; vep, to shake, tremble+thu, dhu=vepathu, vepadhu, trembling; vam to throw up, vomit+thu, dhu=vamathu, vamadhu vomitting.

ra- Forms some nouns and adjectives; there is no gua, mostly found in the forms: ira, ura (see also), and ara. Nouns: bhand bhad, to receive, praise+ra=bhadra, bhadda, (adj.) laudable, good, worthy; dh, to think+ra=dhra (adj.) wise, a wise man; bham, to flutter, move in circles+(a) ra=bhamara, a bee.

ri- gives very few derivatives: bh+ri=bhri (adj.), abundant, much.

ru- forms some nouns and adj.: bh, to fear, be afraid+ru=bhru, timid; can, to rejoice in, to gladden+ru=cŒru (with elision of n), dear, gladsome.

u (ru and u)- Although making a large number of derivatives, substantive and adjectives, as the connection of the meaning with the root, is, in many, cases, not easily traced, this suffix is classed with the uŒdi; gua may or may not take place. bandh, to bind+u=bandhu, a kinsman; kar+u=karu, a doer, maker, artisan; tan, to continue, extend+u=tanu, a son; vas, to light up, shine+u=vasu, a gem; good.

uka (uka)- forms a few nouns and adj. denoting the agent; there is gua;
pad, to tread, step+uka=p
Œduka (Fem.), a shoe; kar+uka=kŒruka (Masc.), a maker, artisan.

una- Forms a few derivatives. tar, to cross, pass away+una=taruŒ, just begun, young, fresh, kar, to love, pity+una=karunŒ, (Fem.) compassion; pis, to grind, hurt, destroy+una=pisuno (adj.), backbiting, malicious; a tale-bearer.

- forms some adj. and nouns mostly Fem. vid, to know+=vid, knowing; vi+–Œ, to know+=vi––, knowing.

ra-A few nouns only. und, to wet, moisten+ra=undra, a rat.

usa,* ussa- The derivatives from this, very few, are doubtful: man, to think+usa, ussa=manussa, mŒnusa, man.

vŒ-This, as the suffix of the P.P.A., has already been noticed (465).

ya- This forms Neut. nouns, most of them abstract in meaning. Assimilation takes place regularly. rŒj, rule+ya=rajja, kingship, kingdom; vaj, to avoid+ya=vajja, a fault, what is to be avoided; yuj, to yoke, harness+ya=yoga, a carriage, conveyance. It will be remarked that ya is also the suffix of the F. P. P. (466) which often, in the Neut. Sing. makes nouns.

yŒa (see remark; under: laa).

(a) The student will have remarked that the participles Pres. Active, Pres. Reflective; the P.P.P. the Perf Active and the F.P.P. are considered as belonging to the Primary derivation.
(b) Suffixes: tabba, an
ya, ya(nya), and icca are by native grammarians called kicca suffixes. (466)

579. (ii) Secondary Derivatives (taddhita)

(a) These derivatives are called "Secondary" because they are formed by means of suffixes from the the "Primary" derivatives explained in the kita derivation above.
(b) Secondary derivatives are also formed from pronominal bases (336).
(c) As in kita, gu
a may or may not take place.

580. The following remarks about the meaning of the secondary derivation, should be well noted:
(i) The great bulk of taddhita suffixes form adjectives from nouns.
(ii) These adjectives are very freely used as substantives, the Masc. and Fem. being generally nouns denoting the agent, while in the Neut. they are abstract.
(iii) The final vowel of a word is often elided before a taddhita suffix.
(iv) The gu
a affects mostly the first syllable of the word to which the suffix is added.

581. The following is a list in alphabetical order of the taddhita suffixes.

a (a, and a)- An extremely large number of derivatives are formed by means of this suffix. It is added to nouns and to adjectives used substantively; these derivatives are essentially adjectives, used in most cases substantively. They primarily express connection with, relations with or dependence on that denoted by the "primary derivatives"; this relation is necessarily of many kinds, as:

(1) patronymics; the Masc. denotes the son of, the Fem., the daughter of and the Neuter the consanguinity or relation of, vasiha+a=vŒsiho, the son of, vŒsih, the daughter of, vŒsiha, the relation of Vasiha. So: from visamitta+a=vesamitto, vesamitta, vesamitta; manu+a=mŒnavo, mŒnav, mŒnava (110, Remark) the son, daughter or relation of Manu.

(2) that which is dyed with: kasŒva, a reddish-yellow dye+a=kŒsŒvo, reddish-yellow, yellow; kŒsŒva, a monk's robe (which is dyed with such dye). So: haliddŒ, turmeric+a=hŒliddo, yellow, dyed with turmeric.

(3) the flesh of: skara, a pig+a=sokara pork; mahisa, buffalo+a=mŒhisa, buffalo's flesh. As adj.=sokaro, relating to pigs; mŒhiso, relating to buffaloes.

(4) belonging to: vidisŒ(a foreign country) +a=vediso belonging to a foreign country, a foreigner; magadhŒ(Southern Bihar) +a=mŒgadho, belonging to, born in, MagadhŒ.

(5) a collection of: kapota, a dove pigeon +a=kŒpoto a group of doves, or, relating to doves; mayra a peacock+a=mŒyro, a group of peacocks; adj., belonging to, relating to peacocks.

(6) Study, knowledge of, knowing: nimitta, an omen+a=nemitto, a knower of omens, a fortune teller; veyyŒ karaa, exegesis, grammar+a=veyyŒkarao, a grammarian; muhutta, a while+a=mohutto, one who studies for a while only; also: relating to a moment, momentary.

(7) The locality in which something or some one is or exists: sakua, a bird+a=sŒkua, the place wherein birds roost or resort to; udumbara, a fig-tree+a=odumbara, a place where fig-trees grow.

(8) Possession of: pa––Œ, wisdom+a=pa––o, possessing wisdom, wise, a wise man; saddhŒ, faith +a=saddho, one who has faith, believing, faithful, a believer.

aka (aka)- Is said to denote the property of: manussa, a man+a=manussaka, that which belongs to man, the property of man, human. (See ka).

aya- For this, see ya.

Œlu- (This is suffix lu, preceded by Œ (See lu); denotes the tendency, and forms some past participial adj. dayŒ, sympathy, compassion +Œlu=dayŒlu, compassionate; abhijjhŒ, covetousness +alu=abhijjhŒlu, covetous, whose tendency is to be covetous; sta, cold+Œlu stŒlu, chilled, cold.

Œna (Œna)- Forms patronymics: kacca (a proper name)+Œna=kaccŒno, kaccŒn, kacccŒna, the son, daughter, offspring of Kacca; cora, a thief+Œna=corŒno, corŒn, corŒnam, the son, etc.

Œa- (given as a kita Suffix in the forms: lŒa, yŒa (see kita suffixes above) forms a very few derivatives; kalya, and by assimilation kalla, healthy, remembering, thinking of, +Œa=kalyŒo, kallŒo, happy, blessed with health, good.

Œyana (Œyana)- Also forms patronymics: kacca+Œyana=kaccŒyano, kacŒyan, kaccŒyana, the son, etc, of Kacca: vaccha+Œyana=vacchŒyano, vacchŒyŒn, vacchŒyana, the son, etc, of Vaccha.

bya- is said to denote: the state of: dŒsa, a slave +bya=dŒsabya, the state of being a slave, slavery.

dhŒ- Has already been noted (see kita suffixes above).

era (era)- Patronymics; the final vowel of the word is elided. vidhava+era=vedhavera, the son of Vidhava; naika+era=naikero, the son of Naika; samaa, a monk+era=sŒmaera, the son,viz. the disciple of the monk, a novice.

eyya 1 (eyya)- The state or nature of: alasa, idle +eyya=Œlaseyya idleness; sŒpateyya, property (lit., one's own property)=sa, own +pati, master, owner+eyya (note the elision of i in pati).

eyya 2 (eyya)- Patronymics; with gua. vinata+eyya=venateyyo, the son of Vinata; mŒl, a gardener +eyya=mŒleyya, the gardener's son.

eyya 3- Denotes the nature of, the origin, the place where a thing is made, or a person or animal reared up. Pabbateyya, whose place or abode is in the mountain, belonging to mountains=pabbata +eyya; suci, purity +eyya=soceyya, the state of him who is pure, also, purification; kula, family+eyya=koleyyo, belonging to, reared up in a (noble) family, of good family; bŒrŒas, Benares +eyya=bŒrŒaseyya; that which is made in Benares, lit., that the origin of which is in Benares.

eyya 4- Fitness, worthiness. This is a form of the F.P.P. already explained (468).

i 1 (i)- Forms a few patronymics, from nouns in a: duna+i=doni, the son of Duna; anuruddhŒ+i=Anuruddhi, the son of AnuruddhŒ; jinadattha+i=jinadatthi, the son of Jinadattha.

i 2- After the word pura, town, city, indicates that which belongs or is proper to a city: pori, urbane, polite, affable.

ika (ika)- Is of very wide application and is added after nouns and adjectives; gua generally takes place. It denotes:

(1) Patronymics: nŒdaputta+ika=nŒdaputtiko, the son of Nadiputta; jinadattha+ika=jinadatthiko, the son of Jinadattha.

(2) Living by means of nŒvŒ, a boat+ika=nŒviko, one who goes or lives by means of a boat=a boatman; balisa, a fish-hook +ika=bŒlisiko, a fisherman; vetana, wages +ika=vetaniko, one who lives upon wages, a labourer.

(3) Going by means of: pada, the foot +ika=pŒdiko, one who goes with his feet, a pedestrian; sakaa, a cart +ika=sŒkaiko, one who goes in a cart.

(4) Relating to: samudda, the sea +ika=sŒmuddiko, relating to the sea, marine; sakaa, cart, sŒkaiko, relating to carts.

(5) Playing upon: vŒ, a lute, veiko, playing upon a lute, lute player (27, ii, Remark 2); bheri, a drum, bheriko, a drummer, or, relating to a drum.

(6) Mixed with: tela, oil, telika, that which is mixed with oil; oily; dadhi, curds, dadhika, that which is mixed with curds, and dadhiko, mixed with or relating to curds.

(7) Making, the maker: tela, oil, teliko, an oil manufacturer.

(8) Connected with: dvŒra, a door, dvŒriko, one who is connected with a door, a door-keeper.

(9) Carrying upon: khanda, the shoulder, khandiko, who carries on the shoulder; aguli, finger, aguliko, who carries on the finger.

(10) Born in or belonging to a place, or living in a place: sŒvatthi, sŒvatthiko, of, born in, or, living in SŒvatthi; kapilavatthu, kapilavatthiko, of, born, in, or, living in Kapilavatthu.

(11) Studying, learning: vinaya, the Discipline, venayiko, one who studies the vinaya; suttanta, a discourse (of the Buddha), suttantiko, one who studies, or knows Discourses, viz., the Suttapiaka.

(12) That which is performed by: mŒnasa, the mind, mŒnasiko, mental, and mŒnasika, the act performed by mind; sarira, the body, sŒrriko, bodily, corporeal, sŒrrika, the act performed by the body.

(13) That which is bartered for: suvaa, gold, sovaika, that which is bartered for gold; sovaiko, relating to gold; vattha, cloth, vatthika, that which is exchanged for cloth; vatthiko, relating to cloth.

(14) Possession: dao, a staff, daiko, one who has a staff, a mendicant; mŒlŒ wreath, mŒliko, one having a wreath; puttiko, who has sons.

(15) A collection, herd, group: kedŒra, a field, kedŒrika, a collection of fields; hatthi, elephant, hatthika, herd of elephants.

(16) Measure: kumbha, a pot, kumbhiko, containing a big measure, viz., as much as a pot; kumbhika, that which is contained in a pot.

imŒ- Denotes position or direction in space or time; it also shows relation: pacchŒ, behind, western, pacchimo hindermost, western; anta, limit, end; antimo, last, final. So, majjhimo, middling, from majjha, middle.

imŒ- Forms a limited number of possessive adj.: putta, son, puttimŒ, who has sons; papŒ, evil, sin, pŒpimŒ sinful, evil. This suffix is the same as that noticed in (221, 222) with connecting vowels before it.

in (i)- Forms a numerous class of possessive adj., very often used substantively (137); the stems are in in, and the nominative sing in ; daa, a staff, da, possessed of a staff; manta, design, plan, mant, one replete with plans, a minister, adviser; pŒpa, evil+in=pŒp, having evil, evil.

ina- A few possessive adj.; mala, dirt, taint+ina=malina, dirty, tainted.

issika- This is the sign of the Superlative (238).

iya- A few abstract nouns; issara, lord, chief+iya=issariya, dominion; alasa, lazy, Œlasiya, idleness.

ya- like ima above.

iya, as ya noticed in (466), is essentially a suffix of the F.P.P. The proper form of the suffix, it should be noted is: ya.

1- See in, above.

2- Is used after the cardinals from 11 upwards to form ordinals expressing the day of the month, but also mere ordinals sometimes: ekŒdasa, 11 +=ekŒdas, the 11th day or simply, the 11th; catuddasa, 14 +=catuddas, the 14th day, or the 14th.

ka (ka)- Is much used to form adjectives, which in Neut. become abstract nouns; besides, it also forms a certain number of nouns Masc. which, however, are adjectives used as substantives. Gua often takes place: rakkhŒ, protection +ka=rakkhako, protecting, a guard; rakkhana, defence +ka=rakkhanako, a guard; ramaeyya, pleasurable +ka=rŒmaeyyako, delightful, rŒmaeyyaka, delightfulness.

It has a few other meanings;

(1) Collection, group; rŒjaputta, prince +ka=rŒjaputtaka, a group or band of princes; manussa, man +ka=mŒnussaka, an assembly or group of men.

(2) Diminutives, with, sometimes, a certatn amount of contempt implied; pŒda, foot, pŒdako, a small foot; rŒja, king, rŒjako, a princeling; putta, son, puttako, a little son; luddha, hunter, luddhako, a young hunter.

(3) Not seldom, ka adds nothing whatever to the primary meaning of the word; kumŒra, child, young prince +ka=kumŒrako; nava, young, junior +ka=navaka.

(4) It is much used after compounds, above all, after bahubbh, to form poseessives, but often also redundantly.

(5) The use of ka after numerals has been noticed (286).

kata- Is considered as a suffix by some grammarians; It is used with prefixes ni+kaa=nikaa, near; vi+kaa=vikaa, changed; pa+kaa=pŒkaa, evident, public, clear; sam+kaa=sakaa, narrow. It will be remarked that kaa forms adjectives differing very little or even not at all from the meaning of the suffix to which it is added. It is probably a form of kata (P.P.P.), from kar, to do, make.

kiya- Forms adj. denoting relation, connection (it is made up, no doubt, of ka+iya): Andha, the Andhra country +kiya=andhakiya, relating or belonging to the Andhra country; jŒti, birth +kiya=jŒtikiya, relating to birth, congenital.

la- Forms a few adj. and nouns; it is often preceded by the vowels: i, and u: bahu, many +la=bahulo, abundant; vŒcŒ, word +la=vŒcŒlo, talkative, garrulous; phena, froth=phenila, frothy, the soap plant, soap; mŒtŒ, mother+ula=mŒtulo, maternal uncle; vaa, a circle +ula=vaulo, circular; kumbh, a pot, jar +la=kumbhlo, a crocodile, one who has (a belly like) a jar. la is another form of ra (see also below.); r and l often interchange (47, vi).

lu- For this see: Œlu above.

ma- Forms ordinals (see 274); ma has sometimes a superlative meaning (see, ima, above). ima is the suffix ma with preceding vowel i.

mΠ(mantu) (mant)- is much used in forming adj. of possession. It has been explained already (220, 221, 222, 223, 224).

maya- With this suffix are formed adjectives denoting made of, consisting of: suvaa, gold +maya=suvaamaya, made of gold, golden; rajata, silver +maya=rajatamaya, made of silver.

min=mi- This forms a few possessive adjectives; the stems are in in and the Nominative Sing in (see, in and ). go, cow +min=gomin, (gom) possessing oxen, cattle, a possessor of cattle; sa, own +min=samin (sŒm) owner, master, lord.

m- See last.

ra- From this are made a few adjectives; gua, in some examples, takes place. It is often preceded by the vowels a and i. madhu, honey+ra=madhura, sweet, sweetness; sikhŒ, a peak +ra=sikhŒra, having a peak, peaked, a mountain; susa, empty, hole +(i)ra=susira, full of holes; kamma, act, work +ara=kammŒro, having or doing work, an artificer, smith.

so- same meaning as ra; medhŒ, wisdom +so=medhŒso having wisdom, wise; loma, hair +so=lomaso, hairy.

si, ssi- See below (vin=vi).

ta- Forms a few nouns and adj. it is a possessive suffix: pabba, a knot, joint, fulness +ta=pabbata, a mountain, that which has joints or fulness; vaka, bent +ta=vakata, bent, crooked.

tama- Is the suffix used in forming the Superlative. See (238, i).

tana- This suffix forms, from adverbs, a few adjectives: svŒ (sve, suve), tomorrow +tana=svŒtano, of tomorrow, belonging to tomorrow; sana (S. sanŒ), of old, always+tana=sanantano, ancient, old, perpetual; n, now +tana=ntano fresh, new.

tara- As the suffix of the comparative, tara has already been explained (238, i).

tŒ 1- This suffix forms a numerous class of feminine abstract nouns from adjectives and nouns, and expresses the state, nature or quality of being that which is denoted by the adj. or noun. lahu, light +tŒ=lahutŒ, lightness; sŒra, pith, marrow +tŒ=sŒratŒ, essence, strength; ati (prefix) very great +sra, a hero +tŒ=atisratŒ great heroism.

tŒ 2- Denotes multitude, collection: jana, person, man +tŒ=janatŒ, a multitude of persons, folk, people; gŒma, village +tŒ=gŒmatŒ, a collection of villages. So: nagaratŒ, bandhutŒ etc.

ti- Is used in forming the words expressing decades (see 251).

tta- (S. tva). Forms Neuter nouns of the same import as tΠ(i); puthujjana, a common man +tta=puthujjanatta; the state of being a common man; buddha, a buddha +tta=buddhatta, Buddhahood; atthi he is +tta=atthitta the state of "he is", existence.

ttana- Used in the same sense as the last (S. tvana), puthujjana +ttana=puthujjanattana, state of being a common man; vedanŒ, sensation +ttana =vedanattana, sensitiveness.

tya=cca- (S. tya). Forms a few adjectives from indeclinables; ni, in +cca=nicca, inward, inmate, own, eternal, perpetual; amŒ, with, at home +cca=amacco, inmate, minister (for tya=cca, see 74).

tha- used in forming the ordinals: 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th. (see 251).

tha- Makes adverbs from pronominal stems; it has been noticed in (337).

thŒ- This also has been noticed in (337).

vΠ(vantu)(vant)- This suffix makes a very large class of possessive adjectives. It is similar in character to mΠ(mant). See (220).

va- Forms a small number of adjectives; aa, wave +va=aavo, billowy, also, the ocean; kesa, hair +va=kesavo; hairy (a name of Vinu).

v=vin- Used to form adjectives of possession. The stems are in in, and the Nominative Sing. in . It has been explained in (231).

It is used also after some words the stem of which ends in s (158, 160):
tapas (tapo), austerity, devotion+ v=tapass (tapasvi), austere, a hermit;
yasas (yaso), fame +v
=yasass (yasasvi), renowned, famous.
Note that initial v of v
is assimilated to final s, thus giving ss; the suffix as given by native grammarians is ss, which the student should assume as being the true suffix.

ya (ya)- This forms a very large class of nouns, mostly Neuter abstract. Gua takes place in most cases, and assimilation is regular. alasa, lazy +ya=Œlasya, Œlassa, laziness; kusala, skilful +ya=kosalla, skill, mastery; paita, learned, clever +ya=paicca, learning, scholarship; vipula, broad, large +ya=vepulla development; samŒna, equal, same +ya=sama––o common, general; dakkhia, affable +ya=dakkhi––o, affable, kind; dakkhi––a affability, kindness.

Roots Used as Suffixes (kvi)

582. "kvi" is an imaginary suffix denoting that the root itself is to be considered as the suffix. When a root ends in a consonant, this consonant is elided: gam=ga, ghan, to kill=gha. As these form primarily adjectives, they assume, in certain cases, but not always, the endings of the three genders.

583. The student must bear in mind that native grammarians include kvi in kita. As, however,
they are used as suffixes added after Primary and Secondary derivatives and indeclinables, I have
preferred to treat them separately.

584. A list of the principal roots used as suffixes is here given.

bh- (bh, to be), has generally the meaning denoted by the verb itself: abhi+bh=abhibh, mastering, overcoming, a conqueror (abhibhavi, to overcome); vi+bh=vibhu, arising, expanding, ruler, lord (vibhavati, to arise, expand); sam+bh=sambh, offspring, progeny; sambhavati, to be produced, to spring from.

da- (dŒ, to give, bestow); amata, imortality +da=amatado, he who bestows or confers immortality, conferring immortality; lokahita, the world's welfare +da=lokahitado, bestowing, or wishing for, the world's welfare.

ga- (gam to go); pŒra, the further shore +ga=parago, gone to the further shore, viz. to Nirvana; kula, family +upa, near +ga=kulupago, one who goes near a family, a family adviser.

g- (a collateral form of gam); addhŒ, distance +g=addhag, going to a distance, a traveller; pŒra +g=pŒrag, as above, pŒrago.

gha- (ghan=han [59, note]) to strike, kill; pai, back, in return +gha=paigho, hatred.

ja- (jŒ, jan, to be born, produced): paka, mud +ja=pakaja, produced in the mud, a lotus; ada, an egg +ja=adaja, born from an egg=a bird.

ji- (ji, to conquer); mŒra, the enemy of Buddha +ji=mŒraji, conqueror of Mara.

pa- (pŒ, to drink); pada, a foot +pa=pŒdapo, drinking by the foot (root), a tree.

pa- (pŒ, to guard, keep); go, cow +pa=gopo, cowkeeper.

ha- (hŒ, to stand; exist); nŒvŒ, boat +ha=nŒvaho, stored in a boat; ŒkŒsa, the sky, air +ha=Œkasaho, standing, resting, abiding in the sky.

kha- (khŒ, a collateral form of khan, to dig) pari, round +kha=parikha, that which is dug all round=a moat.

dada- properly the base (371-4) of dŒ, but considered as a root by some grammarians, is used in the same way as da above: sabbakŒmadada kumbha=an all-desire-granting vessel, a vessel which grants all desires.

585. The taddhita suffixes may be classified as follows:
Patronymics- a,
Œna, Œyana, era, eyya, i, ika.
Possessive- aka, ika, im
Œ, in=, ra, (ara, ira), so, ss, mŒ(mat, mant), min=m, va, vŒ, (vat, vant), v=vin, ta, ina, la.
Group, collection, multitude- a, ika, ka, t
State of, quality, abstract idea: bya, eyya, iya, t
Œ, tta, ttana, ta.
Relation (relating to): a, i, ika, ima, kiya.
The others may be classified as miscellaneous.

586. It will have been remarked that some suffixes are merely made up of a principal one which has taken the vowel a or i or u before it. Such are: aka, ika from ka; aya, iya, from ya; ara, ira, ura from ra; ila from la.