A Practical Grammar of the PŒli Language
Chapter 12


539. Declinable stems are frequently joined to one another to form compounds. In the older language, compounds are simple and rarely consist of more than 2 or 3 stems, but the later the language (i.e. in the commentaries and sub-commentaries) the more involved they become.

540. Compounds may also have an indeclinable as the first member; there are even a few compounds made up entirely of indeclinables.

Remarks. The Case Endings of the first member or members of a compound are generally dropped; only in a few instances are they preserved.

541. There are six kinds of Compound Words:
(i) dvanda, Copulative or Aggregative Compounds.
(ii) tappurisa, Dependent Determinate Compounds.
(iii) kammadh
Œraya, Descriptive Determinate Compounds.
(iv) digu, Numeral Determinate Compounds.
(v) abyayibh
Œva, Adverbial Compounds.
(vi) bahubbihi, Relative Or Attributive Compounds.

Remarks. Native grammarians distribute the above into four classes by making. Nos. iii and iv subdivisions of No. ii, tappurisa; but this classification, through lack of sufficient distinctness, confuses the student unnecessarily. We shall therefore follow the above division (541).

Dvanda (Copulative or Aggregative Compounds)

542. The members of these compounds are co-ordinate syntatically, in their uncompounded state; each member would be connected with the other by means of the conjunction ca, and

543. Dvanda Compounds are of two kinds:
(i) The compound is a plural and takes the gender and declension of its last member.
(ii) The compound takes the form of a neuter singular and, whatever the number of its members, becomes a collective. This is the case generally with the names of: birds, parts of the body, persons of different sexes, countries, trees herbs, the cardinal points, domestic animals, things that form an antithesis, etc.

Remarks. The following rules are given as to the order of the members of dvanda compounds:
(a) words in i and u are placed first;
(b) shorter words are placed before longer ones;
and č (long), are generally shortened in the middle of the compound;
(d) sometimes a feminine noun, in the middle of the compound, takes the masculine form (candimasuriy
Œ) sometimes, or remains unchanged (jarŒmaraöaµ).

Examples of (i)
samaöŒ ca brŒhmaöŒ ca=samaöabrŒhmanŒ, samanas and brahmins.
devŒ ca manussŒ ca=devamanussŒ, gods and men.
devŒna– ca manussŒna– ca=devamanussŒna
µ, of gods and men.
candimŒ ca suriyo ca=candimasuriyŒ, the sun and the moon.
aggi ca dhčmo ca=aggidhčmŒ, fire and smoke.
dhammo ca attho ca=dhammatthŒ, the spirit and the word.
sŒriputte ca moggallŒne ca=sariputtamoggallŒne, in Sariputta and in Moggallana.

Examples of (ii)
Note that the compounds which come under no.(ii) sometimes assume the form of the plural like those of no.(i).

mukhanŒsikaµ = mukha– ca nŒsikŒ ca, the mouth and the nose.
µsalohitaµ = chavi ca maµsa– ca lohita– ca, the skin, flesh and blood.
µ = arŒ ca marana– ca, old age and death.
µ or hatthapŒdŒ = hatthŒ ca pŒdŒ ca, the hands and feet.
µ = hatthino ca assŒ ca, elephants and horses.
µ or kusalŒkusalŒ = kusalaµ akusala– ca, good and evil,
µ or vajjimallŒ = vajj“ ca mallŒ ca, the Vajjians and the Mallians.

544. The compounds which take the plural form are called: itaritara, because the members of the compound are considered separately; those that take the neuter singular form: samŒhŒra, because the several members are considered collectively, those that take either the plural or the neuter, are called: vikappasamŒhŒra.

Tappurisa (Dependent Determinate Compounds)

545. In these compounds the first member is a substantive in any case but the Nominative and the Vocative, qualifying, explaining or determining the last member.

(a) The Case-ending of the first member is elided.
(b) In a few cases, the Case-ending is not elided; these compounds are called: alutta tappurisa.
(c) The Œ of such words as: rŒjŒ, mŒtŒ, pitŒ, bhŒta, etc, is shortened in the first member.
(d) Generally, a tappurisa follows the gender of the last member.

(i) tappurisa with accusative case. (dutiya tappurisa).
ara––agato=ara––aµ gato, gone to the forest.
µ patto, attained happiness.
µ vŒdi, speaking the truth.
µ kŒro; a pot-maker, a potter.
µ gŒho, receiving a bowl.
µ kŒmo, wishing the welfare of.

(ii) tappurisa with instrumentive case. (tatiya tappurisa).
buddhabhŒsito=buddhena bhŒsito, spoken by the Buddha.
vi––ugarahito=vi––čhi garahito, censured by the wise.
µ=sukehi ŒhaŹaµ, brought by parrots.
jaccandho=jŒtiyŒ andho, blind by (from) birth.
urago=urena go, going on the breast, a snake.
pŒdapo=pŒdena po, drinking with the foot (root), a tree.

Remarks. In some tappurisa compounds, a word, necessary to express properly the full meaning, is altogether elided.
guĀodano=guĀena saµsaŹŹho odano, rice mixed with molasses.
assaratho=assena yutto ratho=a carriage yoked with horses, a horse carriage.
asikalaho=asinΠkalaho, a combat with swords.

(iii) tappurisa with dative case (catutth“ tappurisa)

Remark. In these compounds, the last member designates the object destined for or attributed to that which is expressed by the first member.

kathinadussaµ=kathinassa dussaµ, cloth for the kathina robe,
(this is a robe sewn on a fixed day, each year as a meritorious act.).
µ=saŗghassa bhattaµ, rice (prepared) for the clergy.
µ=buddhassa deyyaµ, worthy to be offered to the Buddha.
µ=ra––o arahaµ, worthy of (lit., to) the king.

(b) Compounds formed by adding kŒmo "desirous of" to an infinitive are considered to be tappurisas in the Dative relation. (n“ruttad“pan“, saddan“ti).
kathetukŒmo=kathetuµ kŒmo, desirous to speak.
µ kŒmo, desirous to hear.
µ kŒmo, desirous to go.

(iv) tappurisa with ablative case. (pa–cam“ tappurisa).
Remarks. These express: fear of, separation or going away from, fredom from, etc.
nagaraniggato=nagaramhΠniggato, gone out from town.
rukkhapatito=rukkhasmΠpatito, fallen from the tree.
sŒsanacuto=sŒsanamhŒ cuto, fallen away from religion.
corabh“to=corŒbh“to, afraid of the thief.
pŒpabh“ruko=pŒpato bh“ruko, fearing sin.
pŒpajigucch“=pŒpato jigucch“; loathing evil.
bandhanamokkho=bandhanasmΠmokkho, freedom from bonds or fetters.
lokaggo=lokato aggo, greater than the world.
mŒtujo=mŒtito jo, born from a mother.

(v) tappurisa with genitive case. (chaŹŹha tappurisa).

(a) tappurisas in the Genitive relation are by far the most common.
(b) Final “ and č of the first member are as a rule shortened to i and u respectively.
(c) The word: ratti, night, takes the form ratta
µ at the end of a tappurisa.
e.g. rŒjaputto=ra––o putto, the king's son, a prince.
µ rŒsi, a heap of grains.
µ=nadiyŒ tiraµ, the river-bank. (from nad“).
µ saŗgho, the assembly of the nuns (from bhikkun“).
µ uttamo, the greatest of men.

(vi) tappurisa with locative case. (sattŒni tappurisa).
ara––avŒso=ara––e vŒso, living in the forest.
dŒnajjhŒsayo=dŒne ajjhŒsayo, inclined to alms-giving.
dhammarato=dhamme rato, delighting in the Law.
vanacaro=vane cŒro, walking in the woods.
thalaŹŹho=thale Źho, standing on firm ground.
µ Źho, standing on a mountain.

Anomalous tappurisa.
(a) Sometimes the first member of a tappurisa is placed last.
Example rŒjahaµso=haµsŒnaµ rŒjŒ, the swan-king, but also: haµsarŒjŒ.

Alutta tappurisa.
(b) In these the Case-endings are not dropped:
pabhaŗkaro=pabhaµ karo, making light, the sun.
µ taro, crossing over to the merchants (a king's name).
µ=parassa padaµ, word for another, Active Voice.
µ=attano padaµ, word for one's self, Reflective Voice.
kutojo=kuto jo, sprung whence?
antevŒsiko=ante vŒsiko, a pupil within, a resident pupil.
urasilomo=urasi (loc.) lomo, having hair on the breast, hairy-breasted.

The student will remark that the case of the first member may be any case but the Nominative and Vocative.

546. (iii) KammadhŒraya. Descriptive Determinate Compounds

(a) In kammadhŒraya compounds, the adjective: mahanta assumes the form: mahŒ, and, if the consonant which follows is reduplicated, the form: maha.
(b)The word: santa, good, being, takes the form; sa (Sansk. sat).
(c) The word: puma, a male, rejects its final a.
(d) When the two members of a kammadhŒraya are feminine, the first one assumes the form of the masculine.
(e) The Prefix na, not, is replaced by a before a consonant and by an before a vowel.
(f) Prefix ku, meaning bad, little, may become ka before a consonant, and kad before a vowel.
(g) In their uncompounded state, the two members of a kammadhŒraya are in the same case.
(i) The kammadharaya compound (which is also called: missakatappurisa) is divided into nine classes:

(1) visesanapubbapada kammadharaya, in which the determining or qualifying word is placed first.
mahŒpuriso=mahanto puriso, a great man.
mahŒnad“=mahant“ nad“, a large river.
µ=mahantaµ bhayaµ, great fear.
aparapuriso=aparo puriso, the other man.
kaöhasappo=kaöho sappo, a black snake.
µ=n“laµ uppalaµ, a blue lotus.

(2) visesanaparapada, or visesanuttarapada-kammadhŒraya; in this, the second member determines the first.
naraseŹŹho=naro seŹŹho, the oldest man.
purisuttamo=puriso uttamo, the greatest man.
buddhaghosŒcariyo=buddhaghoso Œcariyo, the teacher Buddhaghosa.
sŒriputtathero=sŒriputto thero, the Elder SŒriputta.

(3) visesanobhayapada-kammadhŒraya, the two members of which are determinate.

Remarks. A word, as for instance, so, he, is generally understood between the two members of these compounds.
s“tuöhaµ=s“taµ (ta– ca) uöhaµ, heat and cold.
kha–jakhujjo=kha–jo (ca so) khujjo, (he is) lame (and) hump-backed.
andhabadhiro=andho (ca so) badhiro, (he is) blind (and) deaf.
µ=kataµ(ca taµ) akataµ, (what is) done (and) not done.

(4) sambhŒvanŒpubbapada-kammadhŒraya; in which the first member indicates the origin of the second term, or the relation in which the second term stands to the first. In these compounds such words as: iti namely, thus called; evaµ thus, called; saŗkhŒto, called, named; hutvŒ, being are generally understood, in order to bring out the full meaning of the compound.
hetupaccayo=hetu (hutvŒ) paccayo, the term (middle term) being, or considered as, the cause, the term which is the cause or condition.
aniccasa––Œ=anicca iti sa––Œ, the idea, namely, Impermanence.
hinasamato=hino hutvΠsamato, equal in being low, unworthy.
dhammabuddhi=dhammo iti buddhi, knowledge (arising from) the Law.
attadiŹŹhi=attŒ iti diŹŹhi the (false) doctrine of Self.

(5) upamŒ- or upamŒnuttarapada-kammadhŒraya, in these compounds, analogy is expressed between the two terms. The word: viya, like, is understood between the two members.
buddhŒdicco=Œdicco viya buddho, the sun-like-Buddha.
munis“ho=s“ho viya muni, lion-like-sage, lion-sage.
munipuŗgavo, sage-bull.
buddhanŒgo, Buddha-elephant.
µsi=raµsi viya saddhammo, Light-like-Good Law, the Light of the Good Law.

Remarks. The words: Œdicca, sun, s“ha, lion; puŗgava, usabha, bull; naga, elephant, are frequently used as in the above examples, to denote: superiority, greatness excellence, eminence, so that buddhŒdicco may be translated: the eminent Buddha; munis“ho, the great sage; munipuŗgavo, the eminent sage, etc.

(6) avadhŒranapubbapada-kammadhŒraya, in which the first member specifies a general term. Native grammarians, in resolving these compounds, insert the word eva, just, even (but which in these examples cannot be translated into English), between the two terms of the compounds. In English, these compounds must be translated as if they were in the Genitive relation.
guöadhanaµ=guno eva dhanaµ, wealth of virtues.
µ=s“laµ eva dhanaµ, treasure of morality or of piety.
µ=pa––a eva satthaµ, the sword of wisdom.
pa––Œpajjoto=pa––Œ eva pajjoto, the lamp of wisdom.
avijjŒmalŒ=avijjŒ eva mala
µ, the stain of ignorance.

(7) kunipŒtapubbapada kammadhŒraya, the first member of which is: ku, (see f).
kuputto=ku+putto, a bad son.
kudŒsŒ=ku+dŒsŒ, bad slaves.
µ=kad+annaµ, bad food.
kŒpuriso=kŒ+puriso, a bad man.
kadariyo=kad+ariyo, badly noble, not noble, ignoble, miserly, stingy.
µ=ka+lavaöaµ, a little salt.

(8) nanipŒtapubbapada-kammadhŒraya, (see e).
anariyo=na+ariyo, ignoble.
an“ti=na+iti free from calamity, secure.
ančmi=na+čmi, not having waves, waveless.
anatikkamma=na+atikkamma (gerd.), not transgressing or trespassing.
anatthakŒmo=na+atthakŒmo, not wishing for the welfare of.

(9) pŒdipubbapada-kammadhŒraya, in which the first member is pŒ, pa or any other prefix.
pŒvacanaµ=pa+vacanaµ, the excellent word, Buddha's word.
(Native grammarians take pŒ to be the abbreviation of the word: pakaŹŹho=excellent).
pamukho=pa+mukho (having the face towards), facing, in front of, chief.
vikappo=vi+kappo (thought, inclination), option.
atidevo=ati+devŒ, Supreme deva or God. (note that devŒ becomes: devo).
abhidhammo=abhi+dhammo (Law, doctrine), transcending Doctrine.
uddhammo=ud+dhammo, wrong or false doctrines.
ubbinayo=ud+vinayo (Discipline for the monks), wrong Discipline.
sugandho=su+gandho, good smell, fragrance.
µ=du+kataµ, a bad, sinful act.

547. Nouns In Apposition

Nouns in Apposition are considered to be kammadhŒraya compounds:
vinayapiŹakaµ, the Vinaya. Basket (a part of the Buddhist Scriptures).
µ, the Province of Bengal.
µ, the Kingdom of MagadhŒ.
cittogahapati, Citta, the householder. sakkodevarŒjŒ, Sakka, the Lord of gods.

Remark. Sometimes the last member of a kammadhŒraya, being feminine, assumes the masculine form.
Example d“ghajaŗgho=d“gha+jaŗghŒ (feminine) long-legged.

548. (iv) Digu (Numeral Compounds)

There are two kinds of digu:
(i) samŒhŒra digu, considered as collective takes the form of the neuter sing in
(ii) asamŒhŒra digu when the digu does not express a whole, but the objects indicated by the last member are considered individually, the compound as a rule taking the form of the plural.

(a) Some words, when last member of a digu, change their final vowel to a, if it be other than a.
(b) The stems only of the numerals are used as first members.

(i) SAMīHīRA-DlGU.
tilokaµ, the three worlds (collectively).
µ the three Jewels (collectively).
µ, the four Truths (collectively).
µ=satta+ahaµ (day), seven days, a week.
µ, the five Precepts (collectively).
µ=dvi+ratti, two nights (remark a).
µ=pa–ca+gavo, (remark a).
µ=ti+v (inserted, 28) aŗguli, three fingers.
µ, nine hundred.
µ, four thousand.

tibhavŒ, the three states of existence.
catudisŒ, the four quarters.
pa–cindriyŒni, the five senses=pa–ca+indriyŒni.
sakaŹasatŒni=sakaŹa+satŒni, one hundred carts.
catusatŒni, four hundreds.
dvisatasahassŒni, two hundred thousand, (dvi sata sahassŒni).

549. (v) AbyayibhŒva (Adverbial Compounds)

(a) These compounds have for first member an indeclinable (529).
(b) The abyayibhŒva generally assumes the form of the accusative singular in
µ, and is indeclinable.
(c) If the final vowel of the last member is Πlong Πis replaced by a
µ; other long vowels (except Œ), are shortened.

(i) Examples
upagaŗgaµ=upa+gaŗgŒyaµ (loc.), near the Ganges.
µ=upa+nagaraµ, (loc.), near the town.
µ (plural,) close to the cows.
µ=anu+rathe, behind the chariot.
µ=yŒva+j“vŒ (abl.), as long as life lasts.
µ=anto+pŒsŒdassa, within the palace.
µ=anu+vassaµ, year after year, every year.
µ=house after house, in every house.
µ=yathŒ+balena, according to (one's) power.
µ=pati+vŒtaµ (acc.), against the wind.
µ=pabbatassa tiro, across the mountain.
µ=pabbatassa+upari, upon the mountain.
µ=sotassa+paŹilomaµ, against the stream.
µ=gaŗgŒya+adho, below the Ganges.
upavadhu=upa+vadhč, near (his) wife.
adhikumŒri=adhi+kumŒri, the young girl.

(ii) Sometimes, however, the case-ending is retained; the cases thus retained being mostly the Ablative and the Locative. But in most cases, the Neuter form is also met with for the same compound. The Ablative termination may be retained when the indeclinable is: pari, apa, Œ, bahi, yŒva etc.
yŒvajivŒ or yŒvajivaµ, as long as life lasts.
apapabbatΠor apapabbata
µ, away from the mountain.
bahigŒmŒ or bahigŒma
µ, outside the village.
ŒbhavaggŒ or Œbhavagga
µ, to the highest state of existence.
purŒruöŒ or purŒruöa
µ, (=aruöamhŒ pure), before daylight.
pacchŒbhattŒ, or pacchŒbhatta
µ, after meal.
tiropabbatΠor tiropabbate (loc.) or tiropabbata
beyond, on the other side of, the mountain.
anto av“cimhi (loc.), in hell.
anut“re, along the bank.
µ (loc.), in the street.
µ (loc.), outside the curtain.

550. (vi) Bahubb“hi (Relative or Attributive Compounds)

(a) A bahubbihi compound, when resolved into its component parts, requires the addition of such relative pronouns as: "he, who, that, which," etc., to express its full meaning; a bahubbihi is therefore used relatively, that is, as an adjective, and consequently, the final member assumes the forms of the three genders, according to the gender of the noun which it qualifies. A bahubbihi is equal to a relative clause.
(b) All the Compounds explained above (dvanda, tappurisa, kammadhŒraya, d“gu, abyayibhŒva), become, if used as adjectives, bahubbihi Compounds.
(c) babubbihi being used as adjectives qualifying nouns, must agree in gender, number and case with the nouns which they qualify.
(d) It follows from (c) that a bahubbihi may be in any case relation but the Vocative.

The following are the different kinds of bahubbihi.

(1) pathamŒ-bahubbihi, Relative in the Nominative Case.
Examples chinnahattho puriso=hand-cut man, a man whose hands have been cut off.
Here, chinnahattho is the bahubbihi qualifying the noun puriso.
µ mukhaµ=lohitena makkhitaµ mukhaµ, the mouth besmeared with blood; lohita makkhitaµ is the bahubbihi.
µ puraµ, a well-decorated city; susajjitaµ is the bahubbihi.

(2) dutiyŒ-bahubbihi, Relative in the Accusative Case; that is, the bahubbihi gives to the word which it determines or qualifies the sense of the Accusative relation.
Œgatasamaöo saŗghŒrŒmo=imaµ saŗghŒrŒmaµ samaöo Œgato, this monastery the priest came to, the monastery into which the priest came; Œgatasamaöo is the bahubbihi.
ŒrčĀhanaro rukkho=so naro ima
µ rukkhaµ ŒrčĀho the tree into which the man climbed. ŒrčĀhanaro is the bahubbihi.

(3) tatiya-bahubb“hi, Relative in the Instrumentive Case; in which the bahubbihi gives to the word it determines the sense of the Instrumentive relation.
jitindriyo samano=yena jitŒni indriyŒni so samaöo, the samana by whom the senses have been conquered. jitindriyo is the bahubbihi.
vijitamŒro bhagavŒ=so bhagavŒ yena mŒro vijito, the Blessed One by whom Mara was vanquished, the Blessed One who vanquished Mara. vijitamŒro is the bahubibhi.

(4) catutth“ bahubbihi, Relative in the Dative Case; in which the bahubbihi gives to the word it determines the sense of the Dative relation.
dinnasuŗko puriso=yassa suŗko dinno so, he to whom tax is given. dinnasuŗko is the bahubbihi.
upan“tabhojano samaöo=so samaöo yassa bhojana
µ upan“taµ, the priest to whom food is given. upan“tabhojano is the bahubbihi.

(5) pa–cam“-bahubbihi, Relative in the Ablative case; in which the compound gives to the word determined the sense of the Ablative relation.
niggatajano gŒmo=asmŒ gŒmasmŒ janŒ niggatŒ, that village from which the people have departed, an abandoned village. niggatajano is the bahubbihi.
µ vatthaµ=idaµ vatthaµ yasmŒ kŒĀakŒ apagatŒ, the cloth from which (the) black spots have departed=a cloth free from black spots. apagatakŒĀakaµ is the bahubbihi.

(6) chaŹŹh“-bahubb“hi, Relative in the Genitive Case; in which the compound gives to the word it determines the sense of the Genitive relation.
chinnahattho puriso=so puriso yassa hattho chinno, the man whose hands are cut off. chinnahattho is the babhubbihi.
visuddhas“lo jano=so jano yassa s“la
µ visuddhaµ, that person whose conduct is pure, a moral person. visuddhas“lo is the bahubbihi.

(7) sattama-bahubb“hi, Relative in the Locative Case; that is, in which the bahubbihi gives to the determined word the sense of the Locative case.
sampannasasso janapado=yasmiµ janapade sassŒni sampannŒni, a district in which the crops are abundant, a fertile district. sampannasasso is the bahubbibi.
bahujano gŒmo=yasmi
µ gŒme babč janŒ honti, a village in which are many persons, a populous village. bahujano is the bahubbihi.

(e) The word determined by the bahubbihi Compound is often understood or implied and not expressed.
dinnasuŗko (4)=he who receives taxes, a tax collector.
jitindriyo (3)=he who has subdued his senses.
lohitamakkhito (1)=besmeared with blood.
sattahaparinibbuto=dead since a week.
somanasso=joyful (lit., he to whom joy has arisen).
chinnahattho (6)=he whose hands have been cut off.
mŒsajato=a month old (lit., he who is born since one month).
vijitamŒro (3)=he who has conquered Mara, the Buddha.

(f) In some bahubbihi, the determining word may be placed either first or last without changing the meaning:
hatthachinno or chinnahattho.
jŒtamŒso of mŒsajŒto.

(g) Feminine nouns ending in “, č as well as stems ending in tu (=tŒ, see, 163, words declined like satthŒ,) generally take the suffix ka, when they are the last member of a bahubbihi; possession is then implied:
bahukattuko deso=a place in which there are many artisans.
µ kulaµ=a family in which there are many girls.
bahunadiko janapado=a district with many rivers.
Note that long “ is shortened before ka; the same remark applies to long č.

(h) When a feminine noun is the last member of a babubbihi, it takes the masculine form if determining a masculine noun, and the first member, if also feminine, drops the sign of the feminine:
Example d“ghŒ jaŗghŒ, a long leg; d“ghajaŗghŒ itth“, a long-legged woman, but: d“ghajaŗgho puriso a long-legged man.

(i) The adjective mahŒ, may be used as the first member of a bahubbihi:
Example mahŒpa––o, of great wisdom, very wise.

(j) Sometimes Πis added,to the words: dhanu, a bow, dhamma, the Law, and a few others, when last members of a bahubbihi:
gandhivadhanu=gandhivadhanvŒ (27, “), Arjuna, he who has a strong bow.
paccakkhadhammŒ, but also paccakkhadhammo, to whom the Doctrine is apparent.

551. The student will have remarked that all the examples given above of bahubbihi, are digu, tappurisa, kammadhŒraya, dvanda and abyayibhŒva, used relatively. To make the matter clearer, however a few examples are here given.

dvanda used relatively.
nahŒtŒnulitto, bathed and anointed.
kusalŒkusalŒni kammŒni, good and bad actions.

tappurisa used relatively.
buddhabhŒsito dhammo, the Doctrine spoken by the Buddha=Buddhena bhŒsito dhammo.
sotukŒmo jano, a person desirous to hear, one desirous to hear.
nagaraniggato, one or he who has gone out of town.

kammadhŒraya used relatively.
guöadhano=rich in virtues.
kha–jakhujjo puriso=a lame and hump backed man.

digu used relatively.
dvimčlo rukkho=a two rooted tree.
pa–casatŒni sakaŹŒni=five hundred carts.
µsi=the thousand rayed=the sun.

abyayibhŒva used relatively.
saphala=saha phala, fruitful (lit., having fruits).
savŒhano mŒro, MŒra with his monture.
niraparŒdho bodhisatto, the faultless Bodhisatta.

Upapada Compounds

552. When the second member of a dutiyŒ tappurisa Compound is a kita noun or Primary derivative, (see Chapter XIII, Primary and Secondary Derivation), and the first member a noun in the Accusative relation, the compound is called upapada. Such a compound may therefore be called indifferently: upapada or upapadatappurisa. or simply: tappurisa. (niruttid“pan“)

µ kŒmo, wishing for the welfare of, (kŒmo is a kita derivative).
µ+kŒro, a pot-maker, a potter, (kŒro is a kito derivative).
µ gŒho, receiver of the bowl.
µ kŒro, carriage maker, cartwright.
µ cŒr“, one who leads the higher life.
µ –č, he who knows the Law.

Anomalous Compounds

553. A few compounds are found which are quite anomalous in their formation, that is, they are made up of words not usually compounded together. These compounds must probably be considered as of very early formation, and be reckoned amongst the oldest in the language. We give a few examples:

vitatho=vi+tathŒ, false, unreal.
yathŒtatho=yathŒ+tathŒ real, true, as it really is.
itihŒ (=iti, thus+ha, lengthened to Œ), thus indeed, introduction, legend.
itihŒsa (=iti, thus+ha, indeed+Œsa, was), thus indeed it was=itihŒ.
itih“tihŒ (=itiha+itihŒ )=itihŒ, itihŒsa.
µ (=iti, thus+vuttaµ P P.P. of vatti, to say), thus it was said; the name of a book of the Buddhist Scriptures.
itivuttaka (=iti+vutta
µ (=a––aµ+a––aµ), one another.
paramparo (=para
µ+para), successive.
µ, I+ahaµ+ika suffix), egoism, arrogance, the conceit of superiority lit., connected with I.

Complex Compounds

554. Compounds, as above explained, may themselves become either the first or the last member of another compound, or two compounds may be brought together to form a new one, and this new one again may become a member of another compound, and so on to almost any length, thus forming compounds within compounds. These compounds are mostly used relatively that is, they are bahubbihi. The student ought to bear in mind that, the older the language is, the fewer are these complex compounds, and the later the language, the more numerous do they become; it therefore follows that long compounds are a sign of decay and, to a certain extent, a test as to the relative age of a text.

varaöarukkhamčle, at the foot of the varaöa tree, is a tappurisa compound in the genitive relation, and is resolved as follows: varaöarukkhassa mčle; varaöarukkhassa is itself a kammadharaya compound=varaöa eva rukkha. It is therefore a tappurisa compound, the first member of which is a kammadharaya compound.
maraöabhayatajjito, terrified by the fear of death, a bahubbihi qualifying a noun understood, and is a tappurisa in the instrumentive relation: maraöabhayena tajjito; maraöabhaya is itself a tappurisa in the ablative: maranŒ bhaya.
µ, the translation of the Singhalese Commentaries, is first: a tappurisa compound=sihalaŹŹhakathŒya parivattanaµ, second, another tappurisa: sihalŒya aŹŹhakathŒ=the Commentaries of Ceylon, the Singhalese Commentaries.
aparimitakŒlasa–citapu––abalanibbattŒya, produced by the power accumulated during an immense period of time, the whole is a bahubbihi feminine in the Instrumentive.

We resolve it as: aparimitakŒlasa–citapu––abala, a tappurisa determining nibbattŒya;
aparimitakŒlasa–citapu––a, a kammadharaya determining bala;
aparimitakŒlasa–cita, a kammadharaya determining pu––a;
aparimitakŒla, a kammadharaya determining sa–cita;
lastly aparimita is a kammadharaya=a+parimita.

In its uncompounded state, it would run as follows: aparimite kŒle sa–citassa pu––assa balena nibbattŒya.

Remark. The student should follow the above method in resolving compounds.

Changes of certain words in compounds.

555. Some words, when compounded, change their final vowel; when last members of a bahubbihi, they, of course, assume the ending of the three genders, according to the gender of the noun they determine. The most common are here given:

go, a cow, bullock, becomes gu, gavo or gavaµ:
pa–cagu, bartered with five cows (pa–cahi gohi kito); rŒjagavo the king's bullock (ra––o go);
µ, wife and cow (dŒro ca go); dasagavaµ, ten cows.
bhčmi, place, state, stage, degree, storey becomes bhčma:
µ, birth place (jŒtiyŒ bhčmi); dvibhčmaµ, two stages (dvi bhčmiyo); dvibhčmo, two storeyed. Ka, is sometimes superadded, as: dvibhčmako=dvibhčmo.

nad“, a river, is changed to nada:
µ, five rivers; pa–canado, having five rivers.

aŗguli, finger, becomes aŗgula (see, 548, a).

ratti, night, is changed to ratta (see, 548, a); here are a few more examples:
µ for a long time (lit. long nights=d“ghŒ rattiyo; ahorattaµ, Oh! the night! (aho ratti);
a¶¶haratto, midnight (rattiyŒ a¶¶ha
µ=the middle of the night).

akkhi, the eye, changes to akkha:
visŒlakkho, large eyed (visŒlŒni akkh“ni yassa honti); virčpakkho, having horrible eyes, name of the Chief of the Nagas (virčpŒni akkh“ni yassa, to whom (are) horrible eyes); sahassakkho, the thousand-eyed, a name of Sakka (akkh“ni sahassŒni yassa); parokkha
µ, invisible, lit., "beyond the eye" (akkhinaµ tirobhŒgo).

sakhŒ, (masc.) friend, companion, becomes sakho:
vŒyusakho, the breeze's friend, fire (vayuno sakhŒ so); sabbasakho, the friend of all (sabbesa
µ sakhŒ).

attŒ, self, one's self becomes atta:
pahitatto, resolute, whose mind is bent upon, lit, directed towards (pahito pesito attŒ yena, by whom the mind is directed upon); Źhitatto, of firm mind (Źhito attŒ assa, whose mind is firm).

pumŒ=male, a man, becomes puµ, and final µ is assimilated to the following consonant according to the usual rules:
µ, the male sex: manhood, the masculine gender (puµ+lingaµ, characteristic, sign);
puŗkokilo, a male cuckoo (pu
saha, with, is abbreviated to sa, which is placed at the beginning of compounds ka is sometimes superadded: sapicuka, of cotton, with cotton, as -sapicuka
µ maö¶alikaµ, a ball of cotton, cotton ball; sadevako, with the deva worlds; saha is used in the same sense: sahodaka, with water, containing water (saha udaka).

santa, good, being, is also abbreviated to sa (see, 546, b):
sappurisa, a good man; sajjano, well-born, virtuous (sa+jana, a person).
samŒna, same, similar, equal; is likewise shortened to sa:
sajŒti or sajŒtika, of the same species, of the same class (samŒnajŒti); sajanapado; of, or belonging to, the same district (samŒnajanapado); sanŒmo, of the same name (samŒno nŒmo); sŒnŒbhi, of the same navel, uterine.

mahanta, becomes mahΠ(see 546, a).

jŒyŒ, wife, takes the forms jŒni, jaµ, tudaµ*, jayaµ, before the word pati, lord, husband:
jayŒpati, jayampati, jŒnipati, jampati, tudampati, husband and wife.
*The niruttid“pan“ has the following interesting note on the word tudaµ: "yathŒ ca sakkaŹaganthesu 'dŒro ca pati ca dampat“' ti" And lower down: "tattha 'tu' saddo padapčraöamatte yujjati".

Verbal Compounds

556. Many nouns and adjectives are compounded with Ćkar, to do and Ćbhč, to be, or with their derivatives very much in the manner of Verbal Prefixes.

557. The noun or adjective stems thus used change final a or final i to “.
daĀha, hard, firm, daĀhikaroti, to make firm.
µ, making firm, strengthening.
bahula, abundant, bahul“karoti, to increase, to enlarge.
µ, increasing; bahul“kato, increased.
bhasma, ashes, bhasmibhavati, to be reduced to ashes,
bhasmibhčto, reduced to ashes.