A Practical Grammar of the PŒli Language
Chapter 10


354. Conjugation, or the inflection of verbs, consists in making the verbal root undergo certain changes in form, by the addition to it of certain prefixes and terminations to show the difference of Voice, of Tense, of Mode, of Person, and of Number.

355. There are two voices:
(1) The Active, called in P
Œli: parassapada (lit. a word for another) and
(2) The Reflective in P
Œli called attanopada (lit. a word for one's self).

356. The Active Voice, or parassapada may be said to be used, when the fruit or consequence of the action; expressed by the verb passes on to another person or thing other than the subject or agent; the Reflective Voice or attanopada, is used when the fruit or the consequence expressed by the verb accrues to no one else but to the the agent. The Reflective voice merely implies that the agent has the ability to do that action or suffer that state which is denoted by the Root.

357. It must here be remarked that the Reflective Voice has lost very much of its importance, and that the distinction between Active and Reflective has been almost if not altogether effaced, and that the choice between the Active or Reflective is mostly determined now by metrical exigencies. It therefore follows the Reflective Voice or the "Middle Voice," as it is also called, is confined to poetry, and is but rarely found in prose.

358. There are six Tenses:
(1) The Present; and its preterite.
(2) The Imperfect; used originally to express a definite past.
(3) The Aorist, expressing time recently past. This is now the only true past tense in P
Œli, and is very extensively used.
(4) The Perfect, originally an indefinite past. This tense is of very rare occurrence.
(5) The Future, expressing future time in general and its preterite.
(6) The Conditional, expressing future time relatively to something that is past, and an action unable to be performed on account of some difficulty in the way of its execution.

359. There are three Modes of the Present Tense:
(1) The Indicative.
(2) The Imperative.
(3) The Optative.

360. The Present, the Perfect and the Future Tenses, have each a Participle, called after them:
(1) The Present Participle.
(2) The Perfect Participle.
(3) The Future Participle.

Remarks. The Perfect Participle, mostly formed from the root, is principally of past and passive meaning; sometimes also of Neuter meaning.

361. There is also a Participle of Necessity, also called Future Passive Participle and Potential Participle, which is but a Verbal Adjective.

362. According to the Base on which they are formed the Present and the Future Participles may be active or passive in sense.

363. There are two Verbal Nouns:
(1) The Infinitive, in the Accusative Case-form; sometimes (rarely), in the Dative Case-form; which has nothing to do with the Conjugation and the Tense Systems; and has the sense of a regular infinitive.
(2) A Gerund so-called, which is but the Case-form of a derivative noun having the force of an absolute participle.

364. There are two Numbers: the Singular and the Plural.

365. There are three Persons: the First, Second and Third Persons.

366. From what has been said above, it will be seen that the tenses group themselves into four well defined classes or systems.
(1) The Present System, composed of:
(a) The Present Indicative, and its preterite.
(b) The Imperfect.
(c) The Present Imperative.
(d) The Present Optative.
(e) The Present Participle.
(2) The Aorist System, composed of:
(a) The Aorist Tense only.
(3) The Perfect System, comprising:
(a) The Perfect Tense.
(b) The Perfect Participle.
(4) The Future System composed of:
(a) The Future Tense.
(b) The Conditional.
(c) The Future Participle.

367. There is a division of the tenses, more fictitious than real, into "Special Tenses" and "General Tenses". From such a division, one would be inclined to think that the former are formed on a special base or modified form of the root, and the latter, therefore, from the root itself. But such in fact is not the case, for it will later on be, remarked that the special and the general tenses not seldom interchange their bases.

368. As, however the Present System is by far the most important, and as it is made the basis of the different Conjugations or Classifications of Verbs, we will in the next section explain the formation of the several stems or bases of the Present System (otherwise called "Special Tenses") of which there are ten, divided into Seven Conjugations. These bases are in consequence called "Special Bases".

369. The Conjugation of Verbs is furthermore divided into Primitive and Derivative Conjugations.

(A) Primitive Verbs

Formation of the special bases of the Present System


370. The verbs of the First Conjugation form the Present stem or base in four ways, as follows:

(1) The roots end in a Consonant, and, to form the base or stem, simply add a.

Roots. Bases.
pac, to cook. paca.
labh, to obtain. labha.
mar, to die. mara.
rakkh, to keep, guard. rakkha.
Œc, to entreat beg. yŒca.
vad, to tell, say. vada.
tar, to cross. tara.
v, to live. jva.
bhar, to carry. bhara.

371. To this division belong those roots which, ending in a consonant preceded by i or u, sometimes do, and sometimes do not strengthen the vowel (i, u).

(Without Strengthening)
Roots. Bases.
tud, to know, destroy. tuda.
phus, to touch. phusa.
likh, to write. likha.
nud, to remove. nuda.
(With Strengthening)
Roots. Bases.
gup, to keep, watch. gopa.
subh, to shine, be beautiful. sobha.

(2) The roots of this division do not take the conjugation sign a: the personal endings of the tenses are added directly to the root.

Roots. Bases.
Œ, to go. yŒ.
Œ, to blow. vŒ.
Œ, to stand. hŒ.
Œ, to tell (with prefix Œ). khyŒ.
br, to speak. br.

Remarks. (a) To this class may be said to belong the roots ending in i, or u, u which, when a is added to them, do not take their semi-vowel substitute, but are merely gunated (109, 104-107).

Roots. Bases.
, to lead. ne (or naya) (3rd Division).
ji, to conquer. je (or java) (3rd Division).
h, to be. ho.
ku, to sound. ko (or kava) (3rd Division).

(b) To these transformed roots, which at first sight appear to be pure roots, the personal endings are added, as after the roots: y
Œ, vŒ, hŒ, etc., (2nd Division).
(c) So that these roots assume two special bases: one in e or aya, and one in o or ava, according as the last vowel is i,
or u, .

(3) The roots of this division end in i, or u, which, before the conjugational sign a, are respectively changed to ay and av (103-110).

Roots. Bases.
, to lead, guide. (n + a =) naya.
ji, to conquer. (ji + a =) jaya.
bh, to be. (bh + a =) bhava.
ku, to make a sound. (ku + a =) kava.
khi, to govern. (khi + a =) khaya.
(See above no. 2 Remarks (a, c).

(4) The verbs of the Fourth division of the First Cojugation form their special bases by reduplicating the root.

Roots. Bases.
Œ, to stand. tihŒ.
Œ, to give. dadŒ.
Œ, to hold. dadhŒ.
ha, to forsake. jah
hu, to sacrifice. juho.

Remark. These retain the long Πbefore the personal endings of the present and of the Imperative.

372. The Rules of Reduplication are as follows:

(1) Reduplication consists in the doubling of the first consonant in a root together with a vowel that follows it. If the root begins with a vowel, that vowel alone is reduplicated.

(2) A gutteral is reduplicated by its corresponding palatal.

(3) An unaspirate is always reduplicated by an unaspirate (See chart para 9) which means that an unaspirate is reduplicated by itself.

(4) The initial h of a root, is reduplicated by j.

(5) An aspirate is reduplicated by its unaspirate.

(6) v is generally reduplicated by u.

(7) A long vowel is shortened in the reduplicated syllable. That is:
(a) a or
Πtakes a in reduplication, and sometimes:
(b) i or
takes i.
(c) u or takes u but sometimes a.
(d) i is occasionally changed to e.
(e) u is changed to o, sometimes.
(f) a of the root, following the first consonant, is sometimes lengthened to

Simple Roots. Reduplicated Bases.
Œ, to hold. (Rule 372, 5, 7-a) dadhŒ.
Œ, to give. (Rule 372, 3, 7-a) dadŒ.
kit, to cure. (Rule 372, 2, 7-b; 88) cikiccha.
gam, to go. (Rule 372, 2, 7-a) jagama.
, to dig. (Rule 372, 2, 7-a) cakhana.
har, to bear. (Rule 372, 4, 7-a, f) jah
has, to laugh. (Rule 372, 4, 7-a, f) jah
budh, to know. (Rule 372, 3, 7-e) bubodha.
suc, to mourn. (Rule 372, 3, 7-e) susoca.
pac, to cook. (Rule 372, 3, 7-a) papaca.
chid, to cut. (Rule 372, 5, 7-d) cicheda.
bh, to be. (Rule 372, 5, 7-c) babhuva.
vas, to live. (Rule 372, 6, 7-f) uv
vad, to say. (Rule 372, 6, 7-f) uv
ah, to say. (Rule 372, 1; 22)

Remarks. The above rules of reduplication apply as well to the perfect tense; but as the perfect is very seldom used in PŒli, the student ought not to assume existence of any form unless it be actually found in the course of his reading.

373. The Verbs of the Second Conjugation form their Special Bases by inserting niggahta before the last consonant of the root, and then adding a, as in the 1st conjugation. Niggahita follows the usual rules of sandhi (39).

Roots. Bases.
rudh, to restrain. rundha.
muc, to free. mu
chid, to cut. chinda.
lip, to smear. limpa.
bhuj, to eat. bhu
pis, to grind. pimsa.

374. The sign of the Third Conjugation is ya, which is added to the root; the rules for the Assimilation of ya (70 ff.), are regularly applied.

Roots. Bases.
yudh, to fight. yudh + ya (74, vi) = yujjha.
budh, to know. budh + ya (74, vi) = bujjha.
pas, to see. pas + ya (76, i) = passa.
dus, to vex. dus + ya (76, i) = dussa.
Œ, to sing. gŒ + ya = gŒya.
Œ, to think. jhŒ + ya = jhŒya.

Remark. The roots of this conjugation ending in long Πare sometimes given under the form of e also; thus:

ge = gŒ, to sing.
ve = v
Œ, to weave.
jhe = jh
Œ, to think, meditate.

375. The forms in Œ (gŒ, etc.) belong, as we have already seen, to the Third Conjugation, but those in e belong to the First Conjugation (3rd Division), and form their bases by the addition of a. Thus:

ge + a = gŒya.
ve + a = v

Remarks. Note well that final e + a = Œya with lengthening of the first a.

376. The Verbs of the Fourth Conjugation form the present Stem or Base by the addition of u, or a if the root end in a vowel; but uu, or uŒ, if the root end in a consonant.

(a) The u of
u and uu may be strengthened to o.
(b) This u or o may, before a personal ending beginning with a vowel, be changed to va (27ii a, b).

Roots. Bases.
su, to hear. su
Πor suo.
Œp (with prefix pa = pŒp) attain pŒpuŒ or pŒpuo.

(c) The long Œ of Œ, uŒ is retained before the personal endings of the Present and of the Imperative except the 3rd Person Plural. Occasionally, however, it is found shortened.
(d) In a few cases the
is de-lingualized and changed to the dental nasal, viz., n, following in this the analogy of the Sanskrit.

377. Verbs of the Fifth Conjugation form their bases by adding nΠto the root, which as a rule ends in a vowel.

(a) If the final vowel of the root is long (2), it is shortened before n
(b) Under the influence of a preceding Sanskrit r or , this n
Œ is sometimes lingualised and becomes Œ.

Roots. Bases.
ci, to heap, collect. cin
, to buy, barter. (Sansk. kr) kŒ, or kiŒ.
dh, to shake. dhun
ji, to conquer, win. jin
as, to eat. asn
Œ, to know. jŒnŒ.
yu, to mix, associate. yun

Remarks. The long Πof nΠis retained in all the persons of the Present and Imperative, except in the 3rd Plural. The short form in na is also often found.

378. The Verbs of the Sixth Conjugation form their Special Bases by adding u to the root; this u generally strengthens to o, which before an ending beginning with a vowel is changed to va (27).

Roots. Bases.
kar, to do, make. karo.
tan, to stretch, expand. tano.
, to make a sound. kuo.
van, to beg, ask for. vano.

(a) The conjugation of kar is highly irregular and formed on several bases and will be given in full later on.
(b) The roots belonging to this Conjugation are remarkably few.

379. The Verbs of the Seventh Conjugation form their Special bases by adding to the root aya, which by contraction may be replaced by e. The forms in e are more commonly met than those in aya. (Compare: 1st conjugation 3rd Division).

Remarks. The following should be carefully noted:
(a) When the radical vowel is u, it is changed to o, provided it be not followed by a Conjunct Consonant.
(b) Radical a, if followed by a single consonant, is generally lengthened, in some cases, however, it remains short.
(c) It will be perceived from the above that the verbs of the Seventh Conjugation have two bases: one in e and one in aya (Compare: 1st Conjugation, 3rd division.)

Root. Base.
cur, to steal. core or coraya.
gup, to guard, shine. gope or gopaya.
pus, to nourish. pose or posaya.
bandh, to bind. bandhe or bandhaya.
r, to finish, accomplish. tire or traya.
, to throw away. chae or chaaya.
kath, to say. kathe or kathaya.

380. A great many roots can form their bases according to two or three or even most Conjugations, in which case the meaning of each Special Base from the same root, differs, in most instances, from the original meaning of the root itself. This will be better understood by several examples. The numbers after the bases refer to the conjugations.

Roots. Bases.
subh sobha (1), to shine. subh + a = sobha.
subh sumbha (2), strike. subh +
+ a = sumbha.
kus kosa (1), to call, cut. kus + a = kosa.
kus kussa (3), to embrace. kus + ya, kusya = kussa (76).
tik teka (1), to go. tik + a = teka.
tik tiku
Œ (4), to oppress. tik + uŒ = tikuŒ.
re (1), to expand. r + a = re.
rŒ (5), to inform. r + Œ = rŒ.
laya (1) to liquify. l + a = laya.
lnŒ (5), to approach. l + nŒ = lnŒ.
tan tana (1), to aid, assist. tan + a = tana.
tan tano (6), to expand, stretch tan + u (=o) = tano.
h vaha (1), to grow, increase. vah + a = vaha.
h vahe (7), to pour from one vessel into another. vah + e = vahe.
vid vida (1), to know. vid + a = vida.
vid vijja (3), to be, have. vid + ya = vidya = vijja.
vid vind (2), to find, get, enjoy. vid +
+ a = vinda.
vid vede, vedaya (7), to feel, speak. vid + e = vede or vedaya.

Conjugation of the Present System

First Conjugation

381. The bases of the verbs having been formed according to the rules given in the preceding paragraphs, there only remains to add to them the appropriate Personal Endings. We now give the Personal Endings for the tense of the Present-System, which is by far the most important, omitting the Present Participle, which will be treated in a special chapter.

Present Indicative
  Pres. Active Voice. Pres. Reflective Voice.
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. mi ma e mhe
2. si tha se vhe
3. ti nti te nte, re
1. a, a amhΠi mhase
2. o ttha se vha
3. a u ttha tthu
1. mi ma e Œmase
2. hi tha ssu vho
3. tu ntu ta nta
1. eyyŒmi eyyŒma eyya eyyŒmhe
2. eyyŒsi eyyŒtha etho eyyavho
3. eyya eyyu etha era

(a) In the singular Optative Active Voice, e may be substituted for eyy
Œmi, eyyŒsi and eyya.
(b) The vowel of the base is dropped before a Personal Ending beginning with a vowel.
(c) Before mi and ma of the Present Indicative, the a of the base is lengthened.
(d) In the 2nd person singular Active of the Imperative, hi may be dropped and the base or stem alone used. Note that before hi the a of the base is lengthened.

382. As has been said above (370) the First conjugation has four divisions. The roots ending in a consonant and adding a to form the base, are extremely numerous.

383. The following is the paradigm of pac, to cook.

Present Indicative
I cook, We cook, Thou cook, You cook, He cooks, They cook.
  Pres. Active Voice. Pres. Reflective Voice.
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. pacŒmi pacŒma pace pacŒmhe
2. pacasi pacatha pacase pacavhe
3. pacati pacanti pacate pacante, pacare
I cooked, etc.
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. apaca, apaca apacamhŒ apaci apacŒmhase, apacamhase
2. apaco apacattha apacase apacavha
3. apaca apacu apacattha apacatthu
Let me cook, etc.
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. pacŒmi pacŒma pace pacŒmase
2. pacŒhi, paca pacatha pacassu pacavho
3. pacatu pacantu pacata pacanta
I may, should, can, could cook. etc.
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. paceyyŒmi, pace paceyyŒma paceyya paceyyŒmhe
2. paceyyŒsi, pace paceyyŒtha pacetho paceyyavho
3. paceyya, pace paceyyu pacetha pacera

(a) The Augment a of the Imperfect may be omitted, so that we also have the forms: paca, paca
, paco, etc.
(b) The final vowel of the 3rd person singular active may also be long: apac
Œ, apac.

384. The above Personal-Endings of the Special Tenses are affixed to the Special Base of the seven Conjugations, after the model of pac.

385. Roots of the Ist Conjugation in i, and u, , require no explanations. The base being obtained, (371, 3) the above Endings are merely added to it.

  bh, to be, base bhava. n, to lead, base naya.
Present Active
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. bhavŒmi bhavŒma nayŒmi nayŒma
2. bhavasi bhavatha nayasi nayatha
3. bhavati bhavanti nayati nayanti
Present Reflective
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
  1. bhave bhavŒmhe naye nayŒmhe
  2. bhavase bhavavhe nayase nayavhe
  3. bhavate bhavante nayate nayante
Imperfect Active
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. abhava, abhava abhavamhŒ anaya, anaya anayamhŒ
2. abhavo abhavattha anayo anayattha
3. abhava abhavu anaya anayu
Imperfect Reflective
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. abhavi abhavŒmhase anayi anayŒmhase
2. abhavase abhavavha anayase anayavha
3. abhavattha abhavatthu anayattha anayatthu
Imperative Active
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. bhavŒmi bhavŒma nayŒmi nayŒma
2. bhavŒhi, bhava bhavatha nayŒhi, naya nayatha
3. bhavatu bhavantu nayatu nayantu
Imperative Reflective
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. bhave bhavŒmase naye nayŒmase
2. bhavassu bhavavho nayassu nayavho
3. bhavata bhavanta nayata nayanta
Optative Active
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. bhaveyyŒmi, bhave bhaveyyŒma nayeyyŒmi, naye nayeyyŒma
2. bhaveyyŒsi, bhave bhaveyyŒtha nayeyyŒsi, naye nayeyyŒtha
3. bhaveyya, bhave bhaveyyu nayeyya, naye nayeyyu
Optative Reflective
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. bhaveyya bhaveyyŒmhe nayeyyam nayeyyŒmhe
2. bhavetho bhaveyyavho nayetho nayeyyavho
3. bhavetha bhavera nayetha nayera

386. The roots of the first conjugation which take the Personal Endings directly (371, 2) are not numerous.

387. It must be here noted that in PŒli, all the roots are not conjugated in the Active and the Reflective voice for all the tenses. Especially so is the case with the roots that take the personal endings directly.

  yŒ, to go. vŒ, to blow. bhŒ, to shine.
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. yŒmi yŒma vŒmi vŒma bhŒmi bhŒma
2. yŒsi yŒtha vŒsi vŒtha bhŒsi bhŒtha
3. yŒti yanti vŒti vanti bhŒti bhanti

Remarks. Before nti, 3rd. Plural, Πof the root is shortened.

388. In the Optative, a y is inserted before the Personal Endings: yŒyeyyŒmi, yŒpeyya, vŒyeyya, vŒye, etc.

389. Some roots of this class are guated (110) generally in the Reflective and 3rd Plural Pres.
Active: br, to speak.

  Active Reflective
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. brmi brma brave brmhe
2. brsi brtha brse brvhe
3. brti bravanti brute bravante

Remarks. In the Plural 1st and 2nd Persons Reflective the u is sometimes found shortened.

390. Other roots of this conjugation are:
han, to strike, kill, 3rd singular = hanti. but 3rd plural = hananti. In the Aorist we have: ahani, hani, etc.

i to go, strengthened to e; the weak base ya is also used (cf. 1st Conjugation 3rd division, such roots as n, strong base ne and weak base naya. Similarly: ji, strong base je and weak base jaya.). We therefore obtain:
1. emi ema
2. esi etha
3. eti enti and yanti.

ha, to stand, hŒti, hŒsi, etc.
Œ, to guard, protect, pŒti, pŒsi, etc.

Remarks. (a) Roots of this class may like others belonging to different conjugations, be compounded with verbal prefixes.

Œ, to tell + Œ = ŒkhyŒ + ti = ŒkhyŒti.
Œ + ni = nihŒ + ti = nihŒti, to be finished.
han + ni = nihan + ti = nihanti, to strike down.
i + upa = upe (21) + ti = upeti, to approach.

(b) the Πof hΠis shortened to a when the root is reduplicated(1st Conjugation, 4th division).
(c) h
Œ, in composition with Verbal Prefixes, often assumes the Special base haha.

Œ + sa = sahŒti, or sahahati, or santihati (See Niggahita sandhi), to stand.
Œ + pati = patihŒti or patihahati, to stand fast, firmly.
Œ + ud = uhŒti or uhahati, to stand up.

391. Similarly, dhŒ, which at first sight would appear to belong to the 1st Conjugation, 2nd Division, de-aspirates itself into daha, and migrates into the pac class (370, 1). Moreover it is used only with Verbal Prefixes. This root also belongs to the reduplicating-class (372) and consequently has also the base dadhŒ. A base dhe, of the same root, is extensively used.

Œ to carry, bear, hold + ni = nidahati, or nidadhŒti, or nidheti, to put down, hold aside, lay aside.
Œ + abhi = abhidahati, or abhidadhŒti, or abhidheti, to declare, point out.

392. Some roots belonging to the Reduplicating Class (371, 4th Division), also take the Personal Endings directly in the Present Tense and the lmperative.*

*Throughout all this chapter many PŒli grammars have been consulted, such as: Saddanti, Niruttidpan, Galonpyan, AkhyŒtapadamŒla, etc.

393. By false analogy, some roots in i, (371, 3rd division), seem to belong to the class of roots which take the endings directly; but in reality, these roots belong not to the 2nd division, but to the 3rd division, the endings being added, not after the root, but after the strengthened base (105), i or having first been changed to e under the influence of a (21, i). Those bases are conjugated exactly like cur, base core, the paradigm of which is given below. The Reflective Voice of such roots is formed from the base in aya.

  n, base ne or naya.
  Active Reflective
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. nemi nema naye nayŒmhe
2. nesi netha nayase nayavhe
3. neti nenti nayate nayante
  Active Reflective
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. nemi nema naye nayŒmase
2. nehi netha nayassu nayavho
3. netu nentu nayata nayanta

Remark. The Optative may also be formed on the base in ne as:

  Active Reflective
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. neyyŒmi neyyŒma neyya neyyŒmhe
2. neyyŒsi neyyŒtha netho neyyavho
3. neyya neyyu nayetha nayera

394. Other roots are:
, to lie down, base: se or saya.
ji, to conquer, base: je or jaya.
i, to set a net, base: e (in oeti).

Remark. The most important root of the Root-Class is as, to be; which is rather defective; it will be given a special chapter (See Defective Verbs).

Reduplicating Class

395. The verbs of this class are characterised by taking a reduplicating syllable: the rules have been given above (372). The conjugation presents no difficulty, e.g. dŒ, to give.

  Present Active. Imperfect Active.
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. dadŒmi dadŒma adada adadamha
2. dadŒsi dadŒtha adado adadattha
3. dadŒti dadanti adada adadu
  Optative Active. Imperative Active.
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. dadeyyŒmi dadeyyŒma dadŒmi dadŒma
2. dadeyyŒsi dadeyyŒtha dadŒhi, dadŒ dadŒtha
3. dadeyya, dade dadeyyu dadŒtu dadantu

396. Some tenses of this verb are formed directly from the base; they will be given in their proper place.

(a) Of d
Œ, we also find the bases dajj and de, formed by false analogy: dajjŒmi, dajjasi, dajjati, dajjŒma, dajjatha, dajjanti, etc., demi, desi, deti; dema, detha, denti, etc.
(b) There is an anomalous form of the singular present very probably formed on the analogy of the plural: dammi, dasi, dati.
(c) The Reflective forms do not exist for most of the tenses, only a very few are met with: the first singular. and first plural: dade, dad
(d) In the root ha the final
Πof the base is preserved long only in the first singular and plural present.
Sing. Plur.
Œmi tihŒma.
tihasi tihatha, h
tihati tihanti.

It will be remarked that hŒtha, 2nd person plural, is formed directly from the root.

The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th Conjugations

397. The conjugation of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th Classes does not present any difficulty; the Personal endings are added as has already been shown for the First Conjugation.

Second Conjugation

398. chid, base: chinda (373). to cut.

Present Active. Present Reflective.
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.
1. chindŒmi chindŒma chinde chindŒmhe
2. chindasi chindatha chindase chindavhe
3. chindati. chindanti chindate chindante

399. The other Tenses are formed regularly, as:
chindeyyŒmi, chindeyyŒsi, chindeyya, or chinde; chindeyyŒma, chindŒyyatha, chindeyyu

And so on for the other Tenses.

Remark. The root rudh, to obstruct, has five bases: rundhati, rundhiti; rundhti, rundheti and rundhoti.

Third Conjugation

400. div, base: dibba (77), to play.

Present Active. Present Reflective.
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.
1. dibbŒmi dibbŒma dibbe dibbŒmhe
2. dibbasi dibbatha dibbase dibbavhe
3. dibbati dibbanti dibbate dibbante

The other Tenses are formed regularly, as: Imperfect adibba, adibbo, adibba, adibbamhŒ, adibbattha, adibbu.

Optative: dibbe, dibbeyya, dibbeyyŒmi, dibbeyyŒsi, etc.

Fourth Conjugation

401. su, base: suΠ(376), or suno, to hear.

Present Active.
Sing. Plur. or Sing. Plur.
1. suŒmi suŒma suomi suoma
2. suŒsi suŒtha suosi suotha
3. suŒti suanti suoti suonti, sunvanti

(a) The other Tenses are formed on the base: suŒ final Œ being dropped before initial i and e, as: sueyyami, sueyyŒsi etc, suissŒmi, suissŒma, suissasi, etc.
(b) sak, to be able, belongs to this conjugation, but has developed several bases: sakkuŒti with the k doubled; sakkoti, by assimilation (57) sak+no=sakno, sakko+ti=sakkoti. Similarly, there is a form sakkŒti obtained by the same process; sak+nŒ=sakna, sakkŒ+ti=sakkŒti: and still another form occurs, with short a: sakkati
(c) Œp, to attain, with prefix pa (pa+Œp=pŒp), shows 3 forms: pappoti, pŒpuŒti, pŒpuoti. gah, to take, seize has for base: gahŒ with metathesis (111, p.35): gahŒmi, gahŒsi, etc.
(d) We have already said that the is very often de-lingualised (376, d). That is to say, many of the roots belonging to the 4th Conjugation form their bases according to the 9th Conjugation of Sansk. verbs, by adding nŒ to the root. For instance from ci, to collect, to heap, we have: cinŒti, to gather; ocinŒti, ocinati, to pick up, to gather.
Remark that the base may be with short a as well as with long Œ and that this is the case with many of the roots of this conjugation, cf. sa–cinati, sa–cinoti, sa–cinŒti, to accumulate.
(e) From bh we have a verb abhisambhunati and abhisambhunoti, to obtain. The root of this verb is said by some grammarians to be Sansk. bh, but this is most improbable. Some native grammarians give a root sambh, found only in the Dhammapada, not perceiving it is merely a compound of prefix sam+bhu.

Fifth Conjugution

402. dh to shake; base dhunŒ, (377).

Active. Reflective.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. dhunŒmi dhunŒma dhune dhunŒmhe
2. dhunŒsi dhunŒtha dhunase dhunavhe
3. dhunŒti dhunanti dhunate dhunante, dhunare.

(a) Other Verbs belonging to this class are:
j–Œ, jŒ, –Œ, to know, base: jŒna.
as, to eat, base : asnŒ.
mun=man, to think, base: munŒ.
(b) The student will have remarked that the 4th and 5th Conjugations very often interchange their bases. This is owing to the false analogy of Sansk. roots.

Sixth Conjugation

403. kar, to make, to do, base karo (378).

Sing. plur.
1. karomi karoma
2. karosi karotha
3. karoti karonti

(a) There are several bases of the root kar as: karo, kara, kubb; the conjugation of this verb, as already said (378, a) will be given in full in the chapter on Defective Verbs.

tan, to stretch, base: tano (strong); weak base=tanu.
Active. Reflective.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. tanomi tanoma tanve (27) tanumhe
2. tanosi tanotha tanuse tanuvhe.
3. tanoti tanonti tanute tanvante(27)

(b) The roots belonging to this Class are very few.

7th Conjugation

404. The roots of the 7th Conugation, as has been remarked above (379), have two bases: one in e and one in aya, which are conjugated exactly like the roots of the 1st Conjugation, 3rd Class, (See 393).

Irregular Bases

Some roots form their Special bases according to none of the above given rules; and they are in consequence called Irregular. The principal are here given.

gam, to go Special base gaccha.
yam, to restrain Special base yaccha.
guh, to hide Special base ghe.
dhŒ, to hold Special base daha, dhe (391).
dŒ, to give Special base dajja.
jŒ, jan, to be born Special base jŒya.
pŒ, to drink Special base piva.
s, to bite Special base asa.
dhmŒ, to blow Special base dhama.
vyadh, (=vadh) Special base vadha.
sad, to sit Special base sda.
hŒ, to stand Special base tihŒ.
is, to wish Special base iccha.
vad, to speak, say Special base vajja, vajje, vada, vŒde.
mar, to die Special base miya, miyya, mara.
gah to take, seize Special base gheppa.
gam, to go Special base ghamma, gaggha.
jir, to gow old, decay Special base jiya, jiyya.
dis, das to see Special base dakkha, daccha.

*These forms are given by the Saddanti and the AkhyatapadamŒlŒ. They are regularly conjugated like gaccha: ghammŒmi, ghammasi ghammati;, etc,. ghagghami ghagghasi ghagghati; etc. ghammeyya, gagghe, gaggheyya, etc. The bases dakkha and daccha from da, dis are formed on the false analogy of the future base, which we shall see when treating of the future. Most of the changes noticed above correspond to similar changes which occur in the 1st, 4th and 6th Conjugations of Sanskrit verbs.

The Aorist

405. The Aorist is the only true past tense in PŒli. The Personal Endings of the Imperfect and those of the Aorist have become hopelessly mixed up and the native grammarians are at a loss to differentiate between the Imperfect and the Aorist; but the Aorist has generally superseded the Imperfect. There are many anomalies which the student cannot possibly understand without a slight knowedge of Sanskrit grammar; he need not however, be detained by these considerations just now. The usual Endings of the Imperfect have already been given (381); much will be achieved if he, for the present, devotes his attention to the following paragraphs.

406. The Aorist is supposed to be formed from the root but as a matter of fact, it is formed indif
ferently either from the root or from the base.

407. The desinences (endings) of the Aorist are:

  Active. Reflective.
  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. a, , i, a, Œ. imha, imhŒ. a imhe
2. i, o, Πttha se vha
3. Œ, i, u, isu, Œ, a tthu, atthu

(a) The student will remark, on comparing the above Endings with those of the Imperfect, that it is difficult to make out the Imperfect from the Aorist (the blending of Imperfect and Aorist is well known to students of Comparative Philology); the only criterion is, that the Imperfect is generally formed on the Special Base, and the Aorist, on the root. But even this is not an absolute criterion, and the fact remains that these two tenses can scarcely be differentiated.
(b) Of the above Endings, however, the most commonly used and most distinctively Aoristic are:
Sing. Plur.
1. i
imha, imhŒ.
2. i ittha.
3. i i
su, (isu).
(c) The nasal of a
is often omitted, and a alone remains.
(d) The Aorist of the great majority of verbs is formed with the desinences given in (b).

408. The Aorist may be divided into three types:
(i) Radical Aorist.
(ii) Stem or Base Aorist.
(i) Sigmatic Aorist.

(a) As its name indicates, the Radical Aorist is formed directly from the root.
(b) The Stem Aorist is formed on the Special Base.
(c) The Sigmatic Aorist is distinguished by an s that comes between the root and the personal endings given in (407, b).

(i) The Radical Aorist

409. This Aorist is not very common. We will give a few examples. Let it be first remarked that the Aorist may also take the augment a before it, as does the imperfect.

410. from gam, and gΠand g (subsidiary forms of gam,) to go, we have:
(a) Sing. Plur.
1. aga
, agamŒ, agami agumha
2. agŒ, agamŒ aguttha
3. agŒ, agami agu
, agamisu.

(b) as, to be (With augment a)
Sing. Plur.
1. Œsi
2. Œsi Œsittha.
3. Œsi Œsu
, Œsisu.

411. hŒ.
Sing. Plur.
1. aha
2. aho ahattha
3. aha aha
su, ahu.

Remark. For the doubling of initial h see 33.

412. From kar we find: aka (1st singular), no doubt formed on the analogy of: akΠ(1st, 2nd and 3rd singular); akΠbeing itself from the Vedic form: akar, the loss of the r is compensated by the lengthening of the final a.
In the 1st singular we also have: akara
, akari.
In the plural: 2. akattha; 3. akaru
, akar, akarisu.

413. h (a form of bh) to be.
3rd singular: ah, ahu, and before a vowel, ahud.
1st plural: ahumhŒ; 3rd plural: ahu

414. da.
1st singular: adŒ, which is also 2nd and 3rd singular.
In the plural we find: 3rd adu
, adasu, adŒsu.

415. The augment a is not inseparable from the Aorist, so that we meet with such forms as:
gŒ=agŒ, etc.

(ii) Stem Aorist

416. As has already been said, this aorist is formed on the stem or base, not on the root. The aug
ment may or may not be retained.

pŒ, base: piva, to drink.
Sing. Plur.
1. pivi
2. pivi pivittha
3. pivi pivi

For the Reflective;
Sing. Plur.
1. pive pivimhe
2. pivise pivivha

3. piva, pivΠpivu, pivu
, pivisu, pivisu.

417. The great bulk of Primitive Verbs (369) form their Aorist according to the above (piva); it is therefore extremely common, both with and without the augment; let it be stated once for all that this augment is of much more frequent occurence in prose than in poetry; in the latter its retention or rejection is regulated by metrical exigencies. We will now give a few more examples:

bhuj, to eat base: bhu–ja gam, to go, base gaccha

  Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. bhu–ji. bhu–ijimha, bhu–jimhŒ. gacchi. gacchimha, gacchimhŒ.
2. bhu–ji bhu–jittha gacchi gacchittha
3. bhu–ji bhu–jimsu gacchi, ga–chi. gacchisu

(iii) Sigmatic Aorist

418. Sigmatic Aorist is formed by inserting s between the radical vowel or the vowel of the base and the personal endings given above (407, b).

419. So that we obtain the following desinences:
Sing. Plur.
1. si
(=s+i). simha (=s+imha).
2. si (=s+i). sittha (=s+ittha).
3. si (=s+i). su

420. As will be readily understood, this formation of the Aorist is used with roots ending in vowels, and the s is inserted to join the endings to the root or to the base. It will be seen lower down, however, that they are added also to some roots ending in a consonant when the s becomes assimilated to that consonant.

421. The sigmatic desinences are used mostly with the Derivative Verbs, principally the Causative Verbs (See: Derivative Conjugation), which end in the vowel e. The verbs of the 7th Conjugation, which also end in e, form their Aorist in the same way.

(Causative Verbs).

422. hŒ, to abandon, Causative base: hŒpe. tas, to tremble, Causative base: tŒse.

Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. hŒpesi
hŒpesimha tŒsesi tŒsesimha
2. hŒpesi hŒpesittha tŒsesi tŒsesittha
3. hŒpesi hŒpesu
tŒsesi tŒsesu
Remarks. In the 3rd plural the form in i
su is also frequent: hŒpesisu. tŒsesisu.
(Verbs of the 7th conjugation).

423. cur, to steal, base: core. kath, to tell, base: kathe.

Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. coresi
coresimha kathesi kathesimha
2. coresi coresittha kathesi kathesittha
3. coresi coresu
, coresisu kathesi kathesu, kathesisu

(a) To the base in aya endings given in (407, b) may be added directly without the Insertion of sigmatic s, so that we have also:
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. corayi
corayimha kathayi kathayimha
2. corayi corayittha kathayi kathayittha
3. corayi corayu
, corayisu kathayi kathayu, kathayisu
(b) This holds good for the Causative Verbs which have also a base in aya.

424. The Sigmatic Aorist desinences are placed after some roots which do not belong to the 7th conjugation or to the derivative verbs:
(i) After roots ending in a vowel, with or without the augment a.
(ii) After some roots ending in a Consonant, in which case the usual rules of assimilation (85) are strictly applied.

Examples of (i)
dŒ, to give: adŒsi
, adŒsi, adŒsimha, etc.
ha, to stand: ahŒsi
, ahŒsimha, etc.
hŒ, to abandon: ahŒsi
, ahŒsi, ahŒsimha, etc.
su, to hear, assosi
, assosi, assosimha, etc.
yŒ, to go: yŒsim, yŒsi, yŒsimha, etc.
Remark. From an illusory kŒ (=kar, to do), we find: akŒsi
, akŒsi, akŒsimha, etc.
From –Œ, to know: a––Œsi
, a––Œsi, a––Œsimha, etc.

Examples of (ii)

425. At a first reading, the student had perhaps better leave unnoticed the few references. to Sanskrit Grammar which will be found in the next few paragrahs. Let him merely assume the forms as they are given: the more advanced student ought, of course, to read them with attention.

426. The s (initial) of Sigmatic desinences, as above given (419), assimilates itself to the last consonant of the root according to the usual rules of assimilation:
(a) From dis=sanskrit .d
, we find addakki=Sanskrit adrak--is.
The following forms are also found: addakkh, adakkhi, dakkhi.
(b) From sak, to be able=Sankrit
ak, we have sakkhi, asakkhi; Sanskrit=ak--is.
(c) kus, to revile=Sanskrit kru
, gives akkocchi, but akkosi, without the sigmatic s, is also met with.
(d) bha–j, to break, gives Aorist bhaki.

Remark. The above examples will, I think, be sufficient to make the student understand the nature of the changes which occur in the formation of the Sigmatic Aorist when the roots end in a consonant; this consonant is generally s (=Sanskrit ) and sometimes j. In Sanskrit, final (=PŒli s) is regularly changed to k before the initial s of verbal endings thus giving the group ka, which in PŒli becomes kkha. Again, by another rule of Sanskrit phonetics, final j becomes g, and as no word can end in a mute sonant, this g is changed to its corresponding surd, that is to k. This class of the Sigmatic Aorist, however, is not numerous.

System of The Perfect

427. As has been seen, the perfect system consists of the Perfect tense and the Perfect Participle. The participle will be treated of in the chapter on Participles.

428. The Perfect is characterised by the reduplication of the root. The rules have already been given (372) and should now be read over carefully.

429. The endings are:

Active. Reflective.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. a mha i mhe
2. e ttha ttho vho
3. a u ttha re

(a) Roots ending in a consonant insert an before the above endings beginning with a consonant.
(b) The Perfect is of very rare occurence.

430. pac, Perfect base: papac. bh, Perfect base: babhv.

Active. Active
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. papaca papacimha babhva babhvimha
2. papace papacittha babhve babhvittha
3. papaca papacu babhva babhvu

Reflective. Reflective.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. papaci papacimhe. babhvi babhvimhe
2. papacittho papacivho. babhvittho babhvivhe
3. papacittha papacire babhvittha babhvire

The Future System

431. This system includes the Future, the Conditional and the Future Participle. The Participle will be considered in a special chapter.

432. The Future System has for special characteristic the sign: ssa inserted between the root and the personal endings.

(a) The Future System is frequently formed on the Present base.
(b) The vowel i is often inserted between the ssa and the root or base; in this case the final vowel of the root or base is dropped.
(c) When the ssa is added directly to a root ending in a consonant, the same changes which occur in the Aorist occur also in the Future System, through the assimilation of the initial s of ssa.

433. The Personal Endings for the Future are:
Active. Reflective.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. mi ma
2. si tha se vhe
3. ti nti te nte, re

(a) It will be seen that in the active the endings are the same as those of the present indicative. (381)
(b) Before mi, ma and mhe the a of ssa is lengthened.


434. (i) without connecting vowel i.
(a) i, to go, special base e (390), future base: essa
Active Reflective
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. essŒmi essŒma essa
2. essasi essatha essase essavhe
3. essati essanti essate essante

n to lead, special base ne (371, 3) future base: nessa.
Singular. Plural.
nessŒmi nessŒma
nessasi nessatha
nessati nessanti, etc.

(b) hŒ, to stand.
Singular. Plural.
hassŒmi hassŒma
hassasi hassatha
hassati hassanti, etc.

Remarks. In the above, ssa is added directly to the root; for the shortening of radical a see (34) again:

dŒ, give.
Singular. Plural.
dassŒmi dassŒma
dassasi dassatha
dassati dassanti, etc.

(ii) with connecting vowel i.

(c) bh, to be, special base: bhava, future base: bhavissa.

Active. Reflective.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. bhavissŒmi bhavisssŒma. bhavissa
2. bhavissasi bhavissatha bhavissase bhavissavhe
3. bhavissati bhavissanti bhavissate bhavisante

(iii) with assimilation of ssa

(d) bhuj to eat. gives bhokkha as future base. (Sansk. bhuj=bhok+ya=bhokya) and we have:
bhokkhati. bhokkhate, bhokkha
, etc.

chid. to cut, gives: checcha (Sansk. chid=chet+ya=cetya) then:
checchŒmi, checchasi, checchati etc.

dis, to see, gives a future: dakkha; (=Sans.dc=drak+ya=drakya) from this we find - dakkhati, but more frequently dakkhiti. Similarly from the root sak to be able, is obtained sakkhiti.

435. A double future is also found formed from bases like bhokkha, dakka, which, as has been just now explained are already future, by adding to them ssa with the connection vowel -i

sak, future base: sakkha, sakkhissŒmi, sakkhissasi sakkhissati, sakkhissŒma, etc.

436. From hoti, the contracted form of bhavati, to be, we find the following numerous forms for the future:

1. hemi, hehŒmi, hohŒmi, hessŒmi, hehissŒmi, hohissŒmi, I shall be.
2. hesi. hehisi, hohisi, hessasi, hehissasi, hohissasi, Thou will be.
3. heti, hehiti, hohiti, hessati, hehissati, hohissati, He will be.

1. hema, hehŒma, hohŒma, hessŒma, hehissŒma, hohissŒma. We shall be.
2. hetha, hehitha, hohitha, hessatha, hehissatha, hohissatha. You will be.
3. henti, hehinti, hohinti, hessanti; hehissanti hohissanti. They will be.

kar. to do, gives:
Sing. Plur.
1. kŒhŒmi, I shall do. kŒhŒma, we shall do.
2. kŒhasi, kŒhisi, thou wilt do. kŒhatha, you will do.
3. kŒhati, kŒhiti, he will do. kŒhanti, kŒhinti, they will do.

The Conditional

437. The Conditional takes the augment a before the root.

438. The personal endings are as follows:

Active. Reflexive.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. ssa ssamhΠssa
2. sse, ssa, ssasi. ssatha ssase ssavhe
3. ssŒ, ssa, ssati. ssa
su ssatha ssisu
Remark. The above endings are generally joined to the root or the base by means of the connecting vowel i.

pac, to cook:
Active. Reflective.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. apacissa
apacissamhŒ apacissa apacissŒmhase.
2. apacisse,apacissa,apacissi. apacissatha apacissase apacissavhe.
3. apacissŒ,apacissa,apacissati. apacissa
su apacissatha apacissisu.
(a) The conditional may be translated by "if I could cook," or " If I should cook," etc.
(b) The conditional is not very frequently used.

The Participles

(a) Present Participle


439. All participles are of the nature of verbal adjectives, and must agree with their nouns, in number, gender and case.

440. The terminations of the present participle active are: nta, a or ; nta and are added to the base, a is added to the root.

Root. Base. Present. Part. Active. Base.
pac, to cook, paca, paca
, pacanta, cooking.
kar, to do, kara, kara
, karonta, doing.
chid, to cut, chinda, chinda
, chindanta, cutting.
bha, to say, bhaa, bhaa
, bhaanta, saying.
bh, to be, bhava, bhava
, bhavanta, being.
pŒ, to drink, piva, piva
, pivanta, drinking.

441. Verbal bases ending in e (1st Conj. 3rd. Division; 7th. Conj. and causal bases. See "Derivative or secondary conjugation") which have also another base in aya take only the termination nta after the base in e, and both ota and after the base in aya.

(1st and 7th Conjugations)
Root. Base. Pres. Part. Act. Base.
cur, to steal. core, coraya. corenta, coraya
, corayanta.
kath, to tell. kathe, kathaya. kathenta, kathaya
, kathayanta.
n, to lead. ne, naya. nenta, naya
, nayanta.
ji, to conquer. je, jaya. jenta, jaya
, jayanta.
Root Caus. Base. Pres. part. act. (base)
dhar to hold dhŒre, dhŒraya. dhŒrenta, dhŒraya
, dhŒrayanta.
dhŒrŒpe, dhŒrŒpaya. dhŒrŒpenta dhŒrŒya
, dhŒrŒpayanta.
mar, to die mŒre, mŒraya, mŒrenta, mŒraya
, mŒrayanta.
mŒrŒpe, mŒrŒpaya, mŒrŒpenta, mŒrŒpaya
, mŒrŒpayanta.
chid, to cut chede, chedaya. chedenta, chedaya
, chedayanta.
chedŒpe, chedŒpaya. chedŒpenta, chedŒpaya
, chedŒpayanta.

442. Bases in Œ, no, uŒ, uo (4th Conj.) and nŒ (5th Conj.) generally take the termination nta.
Root. Base. Pres. Part. Act. Base.
su, to hear, suŒ, suo, suanta, suonta.
k, to buy, kiŒ, kianta.

443. The stem or base of this Present Participle is in at, or ant as:
Pres Part.
Root. Stem. Nom. Sing. Masc.
pac, pacat, pacant. paca
, pacanto.
car, carat, carant. cara
, caranto.
bha, bhaat, bhaant. bhaa
, bhaanto.

444. The Feminine is formed by adding to the stems or bases in at and nta.

445. The Neuter is in like the masculine.
Root. Stem. Masc. Fem. Neut.
pac pacat paca
pacat paca.
pacant pacanto pacant pacanta

chid chindat chinda
chindat chinda.
chindant chindanto chindant chindanta

446. These participles are declined like mahΠ(226) in the Masculine, Feminine and Neuter.
The Present Participle may often be translated by " when ..., while ..."etc.

Reflective Participle

447. The Reflective Participle is formed by the addition of mŒna to the base. It is declined like purisa, ka––Œ, and rpa.
Reflective Participle.
Root. Masc. Fem. Neuter.
pac pacamŒno pacamŒnŒ pacamŒna

car caramŒno caramŒnŒ caramŒna

dŒ dadŒmŒno dadŒmŒnŒ dadŒmŒna

su suamŒno suamŒnŒ suamŒna

448. Another Reflective Participle, much less frequent than the above, is formed by adding Œna to the root. It is declined like that in mŒna.
Reflective Participle.
Root. Masc. Fem. Neuter.
pac pacŒno pacŒnŒ pacŒna

car carŒno carŒnŒ carŒna

dŒ dadŒno dadŒnŒ dadŒna

Remarks. As may be seen from the last example, dadŒna, this participle may also be formed from the base.

The Future Participle

449. The future participle is either active or reflective.
(a) In the active, it takes the endings of the present participle active, nta,
(or a), and is declined like mahŒ.
(b) ln the reflective, the endings are mŒna and Œna, and it is declined like purisa, ka––Œ and rpa
(c) All these endings are added to the future base.

(i) Future Participle Active.
Root. Masc. Fem. Neuter.
pac pacissa
pacissat pacissa
pacissanto pacissant pacissanta

car carissa
carissat carissa
carissanto carissanti carissantam
su suissa
suissat suissa
suissanto suissant suissanta
(ii) Future Participle Reflective.
Root. Masc. Fem. Neuter.
pac pacissamŒno pacissamŒa pacissamŒna

pacissŒno pacissŒnŒ pacissŒna

car carissamŒno carissamŒnŒ carissamŒna

carissŒno carissŒnŒ carissŒna
su suissamŒno suissamŒnŒ suissamŒna

suissŒno suissŒnŒ suissŒna

The Passive Perfect Participle

450. This participle is very widely used. It is formed from the root by affixing to it the suffix ta or the suffix na.
Remarks. The suffix ta is by far the most commonly used in the formation of this participle.

451. ta is affixed in several ways:
(i) If the root ends in a vowel, it is added directly without any change taking place in the root.
(ii) When the root ends in a consonant, ta may be joined to it by means of connecting vowel i.
(iii) When the root ends in a consonant, ta may become assimilated to it according to the usual rules.
Remarks. At this stage the student ought to read carefully the chapter on Asssmilation (51.)



(i) Roots ending in a vowel.
Root. Present. Pass. Perf. Part.
nahŒ, to bathe. nahŒyati, he bathes. nahŒta, bathed.
b, to be, become. bhavati, he is,becomes. bhta, been, become.
n, to lead. neti, nayati, he leads. nta, led.
ji, to conquer. jeti, jayati, he conquers. jita, conquered.
ci, to collect. cinŒti, he collects. cita, collected.
bh, to be afraid. bhŒyati, he is afraid. bhta, afraid, frightened.
yŒ, to go undergo. yŒti, he goes. yŒta, gone, undergone.
–Œ, to know. jŒnŒti, he knows. –Œta, known.
Remarks. There are a few exceptions to roots in final Œ.
pŒ, to drink, makes pita, drunk.
hŒ, to stand, makes hita, stood, standing.
dhŒ, to hold, becomes hita, held.
dŒ, to give, dinna, given.

(ii) Roots ending in a consonant and taking vowel i before ta.
Root. Present. Pass. Perf. Part.
pac, to cook. pacati, he cooks. pacita, cooked.
cal, to shake. calati; he shakes. calita, shaken.
gah, to take. gahŒti, he takes. gahita, taken.
kapp, to arrange. kappeti, he arranges. kappita arranged.
khŒd, to eat. khŒdati, he eats. khadita, eaten.
likh, to write. likhati, he writes. likhita, written.
ma, to adorn. maeti, he adorns. maita, adorned.
gil, to swallow. gilati, he swallows. gilita, swallowed.
kath, to tell. katheti, he tells. kathita, told.
(a) Participles like pacita, calita, etc, are declined like purisa, ka––Œ and rpa
(b) In the Neuter these participles are often used as nouns:
has, to smile, Passive Perfect Participle: hasita, smiled, Neuter: hasita
, a smile.
gajj, to thunder, Passive Perfect participle: gajjitta, thundered, Neuter: gajjita
, the thunder.
jv, to live, Passive Perfect Participle: jvita, lived, Neuter: jvita
, life.

(iii) ta assimilated to the root.

453. The suffix ta assimilates, or is assimilated to the last consonant of the root:
Root. P. P. P. Rules of Assimilation.
bhuj, to eat bhutta, eaten (59, a)
muc, to free mutta, freed (59, b)
is, to wish iha, wished (59, ii-iii)
kas, to plough kaha, ploughed (92)
öas, to bite daha, bitten (92)
dam, to tame danta, tamed (67)
kam, to proceed kanta, proceeded, gone (67)
rudh, to obstruct ruddha, obstructed (63)
budh, to know buddha, known (63)
labh, to obtain laddha, obtained (63, Remark.)
majj, to polish maha (also maa), polished (59, i)
muh, to err muha, erred, also muddha (100,101,102)
ruh, to ascend rha, ascended (100,101,102)
lih, to lick liha, licked (100,101,102)
jhas, to hurt jhatta, hurt (94)
pat, to fall, patta, fallen (62)
tap, to burn tatta, burned (64, i)
duh, to milk duddha, milked (100)

454. (a) Roots in r generally drop the r before ta.
Root. P. P. P. Rules of Assimilation.
kar, to make kata made (81).
sar, to remember sata, remembered (81).
mar, to die mata, dead (81).

455. (b) Roots in n generally drop final n before ta.
man, to think mata, thought.
khan, or kha, to dig khata (also: khŒta, from a collateral form khŒ=khan), dug.
han, to kill hata, killed.

456. (c) sometimes final is also dropped.
gam, to go gata, gone.
ram, to sport rata, amused, delighted.

457. (d) In a few cases, final r lingualizes the following t, as:
har, to seize, carry; haa, seized, carried.

458. Pass. Perf. Part. which take na.
The suffix na is much less common than ta, and like it:
(i) lt may be joined to the root by means of connecting vowel i, or
(ii) it may be joined directly to roots ending in a vowel;
(iii) when added directly to roots ending in a consonant, that consonant is assimilated to n of na, and sometimes the n of na is assimilated to the final consonant.
Remarks. na is added generally to roots in d and r.

459. Examples of (i)
Root Pass P. P. Rules of Assimilation.
sad, to settle sinna, settled (69, ii, iii).
Remarks. The form sinna is found only for the verb nisdati, to sit down= sad+ni (prefix);
when sad is preceded by other prefixes, the Passive Perfect Participle assumes the form; sanna, as:
sad-ava=Passive Perfect Participle: ava sanna, sunk, settled.
sad+pa=Passive Perfect Participle: pasanna, settled.
(Note that the base of root sad is sda.)

Root Pass P. P. Rules of Assimilation.
chid, to cut chinna, cut (69, ii, iii).
chad, to cover channa, covered (69, ii, iii).
dŒ, to give dinna, given (69 ii, iii).
In this last example, Œ of the root has been dropped, and the n doubled to compensate for its loss; the form datta given. (=dŒ+ta, with the t doubled to make for the shortening of Œ), is found sometimes.

Remarks. It will be seen from the above four examples that the insertion of i is to a great extent optional.

tar, to cross tia, crossed (83)
car, to wander cia, wandered (83)
kir, to scatter kia, scattered (83)
Remarks. In these examples, i is inserted and then reduplicated and lingualized according to rule (83).

460. Examples of (iii)
Root Pass P. P. Rules of Assimilation.
bhaj, to break bhagga, broken (57)
vij, to be agitated vigga, agitated (57)
In these two examples, final j of the root, having become, against the usual phonetic laws g, the n of suffix na, is assimilated to it by rule 57 (426, Remark).
lag, to adhere lagga, adhered (57).

461. Examples of (ii)
l, to cling to, lna, clung to.
l, to cut, reap, lna, reaped, cut.
khi, to decay, cease, khna, decayed. (final i is lengthened).
gilŒ (glŒ 113), to be ill, gilŒna, ill.
hŒ, to be weak, low, hna, low, wasted, inferior.
In the last example, radical Πis replaced by .

462. A few Passive Perfect Participles are irregular, such as: jhŒma, burnt, from jhŒ, to burn; phulla, expanded, split, from phal, to expand, split; but these are properly speaking derivative adjectives used as participles.

463. Sometimes two forms of the Passive Perfect Participles for the same root are met with:
lag, to adhere, P. P. P. lagga and lagita.
gam, to go, P. P. P. gata and gamita.
dŒ, to give, P. P. P. dinna and datta.
kas, to plough, P. P. P. kaha and kasita.

464. The participles in ta and na are declined like purisa, ka––Œ and rpa.

Perfect Participle Active

465. The Perfect Participle Active, is formed by adding vΠto the Passive Perfect Participle.
Root. P. P. P. P.P.A.
pac, to cook, pacita, cooked, pacitavŒ, having cooked.
bhuj, to eat, bhutta, eaten, bhuttavŒ, having eaten.
kar, to do, kata, made, katavŒ, having made.
Remarks. (a) These Perfect Participles Active are declined like guavŒ.
Examples pacitavŒ, pacitavat or pacitavant, pacitava or pacitavanta.
(b) The P. P. Active is also formed with suffix v (231), in this case the a before v is lengthened to Œ. They are declined like medhŒvi, (235) (that is, like da nad and vŒri as: pacitŒv having cooked; bhuttŒv, having eaten.

Future Passive Participle

466. This participle, also called participle of necessity, potential participle and gerundive, is formed by adding to the root the suffixes: tabba, ya, anya and ya.
(a) Roots ending in u, , generally form the Future P. P. from the special base.
(b) This participle is passive in sense, expresses suitability, fitness, propriety and may be translated by "fit to be..." ust be..." "ought to be...""to be..." that which is expressed by the root.
(c) These participles, like those already treated of, are adjectives and are treated as such; they are declined like purisa, ka––Œ and rpa


467. This suffix is the most common. It is added:
(i) Directly to roots ending in a vowel.
(ii) To roots ending in a consonant, it may be joined by means of connecting vowel i.
(iii) When added directly without connecting vowel i to roots ending in a consonant, initial t of tabba is assimilated to or assimilates the last consonant of the root in exactly the same manner as in the formation of the Passive Perfect Participle.

Examples of (i)
Root. Future P.P.
hŒ, to abandon, hŒtabba, fit to be, that ought to be, that must be abandoned.
dŒ, to give, dŒtabba, fit to be, that ought to be, that must be given.
pa, to drink, pŒtabba, fit to be, that ought to be drunk.
(a) Roots ending in i, , change i, , to e before tabba:
Root. Future P.P.
n, to lead, netabba, fit to be, that must be led.
ji to conquer, jetabba fit to be, that must be conquered.
i, to go, etabba, fit to be, that must be gone to.

(ii) Roots in u, form the Future P. P. on the Special Base:
Root. Future P.P.
bh, to be, bhavitabba, fit to be, that ought to, that must be.
ku, to sing kavitabba, fit to be, that ought to be, that must be sung
In the case of root su, to hear, we find the u merely strengthened: sotabba, fit, etc., to be heard.
Examples of (ii)
Root. Future P.P.
pac, to cook, pacitabba, fit to be, that ought to be, that must be cooked.
khan, to dig, khanitabba, fit to be, that ought to be, that must be dug.
pucch, to ask, pucchitabba fit to be, that ought to be, that must be asked.

Examples of (iii)
Root. Future P.P.
gam to go, gantabba, fit, etc., to be gone to(67).
kar, to do, kattabba, (80); kŒtabba (82), fit to be done, etc.
labh, to receive, laddhabba, fit etc., to be received(63, Remark).


468. The initial y becomes assimilated to the last consonant of the root according to the usual rules of assimilation (79) Sometimes the radical vowel is strengthened.

Root. Future P.P. Rules of Assimilation
gam, to go, gamma, fit, proper, etc, to be gone to. (71, i.)
sak, to be able, sakka, able to be done. (71.)
khŒd, to eat, chew, khajja, that can be chewed. (71, vi)
vaj, to avoid, vajja, that ought to be avoided. (71, 74)
bh, to be, bhabba, that ought to be, proper, possible. (77.)
In this last example, the radical vowel has been strengthened before ya:

Root. Future P.P. Rules of Assimilation
labh, to obtain, labbha, fit worthy to be obtained. (71.)
bhuj, to eat, bhojja, to be eaten, eatables, food. (71.)
bhid, to break, bhijja, to be broken. (71, vi.)
lih, to lick, sip, leyya, to be licked, sipped. (98, Remark.)
has, to laugh, hassa, fit to be laughed at. (76.)
gah, to take, gayha, that can be taken, seized. (78, iii.)

(a) ya is, in a few cases, cases, joined to the root by means of vowel i. For instance:
kar, to do, make, we have:
kŒriya that ought to be, or can be done, with lengthening of radical a.
kayya, that ought, etc., to be done, with assimilation of final r to ya.
kayra, that ought, etc, with metathesis (iii).
bhar, to support:
bhŒriya, that ought to be maintained, with lengthening of radical a.

(b) After roots ending in Πlong initial y of ya is doubled and final a of the root is changed to e.
Root. Future P.P.
hŒ, to abandon, heyya, to be abandoned, that ought to be abandoned.
pŒ, to drink, peyya that can, may, or ought to be drunk.
dŒ, to give, deyya, to be given, that ought to or can be given.

(c) ya is likewise doubled after roots in i, and the i or is changed to e.
n, to lead, neyya, to be led, that ought to be led.
ji, to conquer, jeyya, to be conquered that can be conquered.


469. The suffix anya is added to the root or to the base.
Root. Future P.P.
pac, to cook pacanya, fit to be cooked
puj, to honour pujanya, worthy to bo honoured.
kar, to do, make karaya, that ought to be made or done.
(Observe that the n is lingualised through the influence of radical r, 83).
bh, to be (base: bhava) bhavanya, that ought to be.

The Gerund

470. The gerund is formed by means of suffixes: tvŒ, tvŒna, tna, ya, and tya. It is indeclinable and partakes of the nature of a participle.

(a) The suffix tvŒ is most commonly met with; tvŒna, tna, and sometimes tna
are used as substitutes of tvΠand are met with in poetry much more than in prose.
(b) ya is not so restricted in use as tvŒna and tna.
(c) tya which becomes regularly cca (74, iv), is merely a form of ya, initial t being inserted between the gerundian, suffix ya and a root ending in a vowel.
(e.g. pa+i, to depart+ya=pa+i+t+ya=petya=pecca having departed, 110).
In PŒli ya is added indiscriminately to simple roots or to roots compounded with prefixes; but, as in Sansk. (in which it is never used after simple roots), it is much more common after compound verbs.

TvŒ, TvŒna, Tna

471. The suffix tvΠmay be:
(i) Joined to the root by means of connecting vowel i.
(ii) The initial t of the suffix is, in a few cases assimilated to the last consonant of the root.
(iii) The vowel of the root is guated
(iv) Sometimes the last consonant of the root is dropped before suffixes tvŒ, tvŒna and tna
(v) The final long vowel of a root is shortened before these suffixes.
(vi) The suffixes are added to the special base as well as to the root.

Root. Gerund.
pac, to cook, pacitvŒ, having cooked (i).
khŒd, to eat, khŒditvŒ having eaten (i).
Iabh, to obtain, laddhŒ, obtained (ii) (63, Remark).
labhitvŒ, having obtained. (i).
n, to lead, netvŒ, having led (iii).
chid, to cut, chetvŒ, having cut (iii, iv)
kar, to make, katvŒ, having made (iv).
hŒ, to stand, remain, hitvŒ, having stood, remained (i).
bh, to fear, bhitvŒ, having feared, fearing (v).
dŒ, to give, datvŒ, having given (v).
bhuj, to eat, bhutvŒ, having eaten (iv).
Œp-pa=pŒp, to get, patvŒ having got. (iv; v).
ji, to conquer, jitvŒ, jetvŒ, having conquered (iii).

Remarks. From root hŒ, we have also: hatvŒ.
From dŒ, daditvŒ, daditvŒna.
From kar: kŒtna, kattna.
From kam, to step, to proceed,: nikkamitvŒ, nikkamitna.
From su, to hear; sutvŒ, sotna
, suitvŒ, suitvŒna.

Ya, Tya

472. (i) ya is used mostly with roots compounded with prefixes.
(ii) In a few cases it is used with simple roots.
(iii) tya is regularly changed cca.
(iv) ya is added directly to roots ending in long Œ.
(v) ya may be added to the Special Base.
(vi) ya is assimilated to the last consonant of the root.
(vii) ya may be joined to the root or to the base by means of i.

sic, to sprinkle, nisi–ciya, having besprinkled. (i, vii)
jŒ, to know, vijŒniya, having known, discerned.(i, v, vii)
ikkh, to see, samekkhiya, having reflected. (i, vii)
cint, to think, cintiya, having thought. (ii, vii).
bhuj, to eat, bhu–jiya, having eaten. (v, ii, vii)
dŒ, to give, ŒdŒya, having given. (i, iv).
hŒ, to abandon, vihŒya, having abandoned. (i, iv).
–Œ, to know, abhi––Œaya, having known. (i, iv).
gah, to take, gayha, having taken. (ii, iii).
gam, to go, gamma, having gone. (vi, 71; ii).
vis, to enter, pavissa, having entered. (vi, i).
sad, to sit down. nisajja, having sat. (vi, 71, 74).
sad, to sit down, nisdiya, having sat. (i, vii, v). (See 459. Remark).
kam, to tread, akkamma, having trodden. (vi, 71, 33, 35)
i to go, pecca, having gone, departed, =pa+i+tya. (21, i; 74, iv)
i, to go, abbisamecca, having comprehended, abhi+sam+Œ+i+tya. (21, i).
han, to strike, Œhacca, having struck, =Œ+han+tya, final n being dropped before initial t. (n, dropped before t).
han, to strike, upahacca, having vexed, =upa+han+tya. (See last remark).
han, to strike, uhacca, having destroyed, =u+han+tya. (See last remark).
i, to go, paicca, following upon, from, =pai+i+tya.
har, to take away, Œhacca, having reached, attained, =Œ+har+tya. (81).
This last should not be confounded with gerund, from han, given above.

(a) Sometimes the gerund having been formed by means of ya, the ya is dropped, the root alone remaining, as in;
abhi––Œ, having known, =abhi––Œya.
paisakhŒ, having pondered, =paisakhŒya.
anupŒdŒ, not having clung, not clinging, =anupŒdŒya (an+upa+Œ+dŒ+ya).
(b) Some roots seem to take a compound gerundial suffix, made up of ya and tvŒ, and joined to
the root by means of i, as:
ŒruyhitvŒ (ruh), having ascended.
ogayhitvŒ (gŒh=gah), having dived=ogayha=ogŒhitvŒ.
(c) There are some anomalous forms:
disvŒ, from dis to see=having seen.
anuvicca, from vid, to know=having known, final d being dropped before tya.
pappuyya, from Œp+pa=pŒp, to obtain=pŒpayitvŒ.
vineyya. from n, having removed.
niccheyya, from ni=having ascertained.
In these last three examples the y has undergone reduplication.
atisitvŒ, from sar=Sanskrit s.(?), having approached, having excelled.
(d) The student will have remarked that several forms are met with from the same root, as:
dŒ, datvŒ, daditvŒ, daditvŒna, dŒya.
kar, kariya, karitvŒ, katvŒ, katvŒna, kŒtna, kattna.
gah, gayha, gahiya, gahitvŒ.
Most roots can thus have several forms.

The Infinitive

473. The Infinitive is generally formed by means of suffix tu.

474. The suffixes tave, tuye and tŒye are also met with, but seldom.

475. Tu, like the suffix of the P.P.P. (450) may be:
(i) joined to the root or to the base by vowel i.
(ii) to the roots in Œ, it is added directly.
(iii) roots ending in i, , change final i, to e; and roots in u, , change u, to o.
(iv) Initial t of tu
is assimilated to the last consonant of the root; the last consonant may also be assimilated to t.
(v) tu
is also added to the Special Base.

pac, to cook, pacitu, to cook. (i)
khŒd, to eat, khŒditu
, to eat. (i)
thar, to spread, tharitu
, to spread. (i)
dŒ, to give dŒtu
. (ii)
hŒ, to stand, hŒtu
yŒ, to go, yŒtu
. (ii)
ji, to conquer, jetu
. (iii)
n, to lead, netu
. (iii)
su, to hear, sotu
. (iii)
labh, to obtain, laddhu
: to obtain. (iv, 63, remark)
bhuj, to eat, bhottu
, to eat, (iii, iv, 59a)
Œp, to obtain+pa, pattu
, to obtain. (iv, 64, i)
gam, to go, gantu
, to go. (iv; 67).
i, to go, etu
, to go. (iii).
su, to hear, suitu
, to hear. (v)
budh, to know, bodhitu
, to know., (i, iii).
budh, to know, bujjhitu
, to know. (i, v) .
s, to lie down setu
, to lie down. (iii).
s, to lie down, sayitu
. (v).
jŒ, to know, jŒnitu
, to know. (v).
chid, to cut, chinditu
, to cut. (v).
chid, to cut, chettu
, to cut. (iii, iv; 62, vi)

Tave, Tuye, TŒye

476. These suffixes are Vedic and but seldom used in PŒli; tave, however, is more frequently met with than the other two.
n, to lead, nitave, to lead.
hŒ, to abandon,. vippahŒtave, to abandon, =vi+pa+hŒ+tave.
nam, to bend, unnametave, to ascend, rise, =ud+nam+e+tave.
dhŒ, to hold, nidhetave, to hide, bury, =ni+base dhe (391)+tave.
mar, to die, marituye, to die, Joined by vowel i.
ga, to count, gaetuye, to count. Added to the base gae.
dis, to see, dakkhitŒye, to see (404).

477. The student will have remarked that several forms for the same root are often met with.

(a) The Infinitive is used both passsively and actively.
(b) The Dative of nouns in Œya is often used with an infinitive sense.
(c) The Infinitive expresses purpose and may be translated by: "for the purpose of, in order to."

(B) Derivative or secondary Conjugation

478. The Derivative Conjugation includes:
(1) the Passive;
(2) the Causative;
(3) the Denominative;
(4) the Desiderative and,
(5) the Intensive.

479. It is called the derivative conjugation because the above named five kinds of verbs are derived from the simple root with a well-defined modification of the sense of the root itself.

480. Except for the Causative, Derivative verbs are not conjugated in all the tenses and in all voices.

(I) The Passive

481. The Passive Conjugation is formed by adding the suffix ya to the root.

482. The suffix ya having been added and the Passive Base obtained, the Personal Endings of either the Active Voice or of the Reflective Voice are added to the base.

483. Ya is affixed to the root in three ways:
(i) Directly after roots ending in a vowel.
(ii) To roots in a double consonant, ya is joined by means of i, this i being lengthened to . It is also joined by means of i when a root ends in a consonant that does not generally reduplicate (s, h and r).
(iii) It may be added directly to roots ending in a consonant; in this case the y of ya becomes assimilated to the last consonant of the root according to the Rules of Assimilation. (70.)
(iv) Ya is also added to the Special Base by means of i, lengthened.

Examples of (i).
(a) When ya is added to roots ending in a vowel, the vowel of the root undergoes some change, especially vowels: a, i and u.
(b) Radical Πis changed to before ya and radical i, u, are lengthened to , .
Root. Passsve Base.
dŒ, to give, dya, to be given.
pŒ, drink, pya, to be drunk.
dha, to hold, dhya, to be held.
ji, to conquer, jya, to be conquered.
ci, to heap, cya, to be heaped up.
ku to sing, kya, to be sung.
su, to hear, sya, to be heard.
(c) Radical long and , remain unaffected:
bh, to become, bhya, to have become.
l to reap, lya, to be reaped.
n, to lead, nya, to be led.
(d) In some instances, the long vowel before ya is shortened, in which case the y is doubled.
Root. Passive Base.
n, to lead, nya, or niyya.
su to hear, sya, or suyya.
dŒ, to give, dya, or diyya.

484. To the above bases the Active or Reflective Personal Endings being added, we obtain, for instance from ji, to conquer, base jya (or jiyya).

Sing. Plur.
1. jyŒmi, I am conquered. jyŒma, we are conquered.
2. jyasi, thou art conquered. jyatha, you are conquered.
3. jyati, he is conquered. jyanti, they are conquered.

Sing. Plur.
1. jye, I am conquered. jyŒmhe, we are conquered.
2. jyase, thou art conquered. jyavhe, you are conquered.
3. jyate, he is conquered. jyante, they are conquered.

Optative: (1) jyeyya, jyeyyŒmi; (2) jyetho, jyeyyŒsi (3) jyetha, jyeyya, etc., etc.
Imperative: (1) jye, jyŒmi; (2) jyassu, jyŒhi; (3)jyata
, jyatu.

Examples of (ii)
Root. Passive Base.
pucch, to ask, pucchya, to be asked.
has, to laugh, hasya, to be laughed at.
vas to live, vasya, to be lived upon.
kar, to make, karya, to be made.
sar, to remember, sarya to be remembered.
mah, to honour, mahya, to be honoured.

Examples of (iii)
labh, to obtain, labbha, to be obtained. (70, 71)
pac, to cook, pacca, to be cooked. (70, 71)
bha, to speak, bha––a, to be spoken. (70, 71)
khŒd, to eat, khajja, to be eaten. (70, 71, 34)
han; to kill, ha––a, to be killed. (70, 71)
bandh, to bind, bajjha, to be bound. (70, 71, 74)

Examples of (iv)
gam, to go, gacchya, to be gone to.
budh to know, bujjhya, to be known.
is, to wish, desire, icchya, to be wished for.

485. Long , before ya of the Passive, is sometimes found shortened, as: mahyati or mahiyati, to be honoured.

486. It is usual to form the Passive of roots ending in a consonant preceded by long Œ, by means
of :
yac, to beg=yŒcyati;
aj, to drive+prefix pa=pŒj, to drive=pŒjyati, to be driven.

487. Ya may be added directly after some roots ending a consonant without assimilation taking place and without the insertion of connecting vowel ; as:
lup, to cut, elide=lupya+ti=lupyati, to be elided, cut off.
gam, to go=gamya+ti=gamyati, to be gone to.

(a) We have already said that when the before ya is shortened, initial y is reduplicated by way of compensation (483, d).
(b) The Perfect, thc Aorist, the Future and the Conditional (which four tenses are called: General Tenses; see, 367), of the Reflective Voice, are often used in a passive sense.

488. The Passive may assume several forms from the same root:
kar, to do, make, gives Passive: karyati, kariyyati, kayirati (with metathesis), kayyati (with asssimilation of r, 80).
gam, to go, gives; gamyati, gacchyati, gamyati.
gah, to take, gives: gayhati (metathesis); gheppati, quite an anomalous form.
hŒ, to abandon: hŒyati, hiyati.

489. Anomalous form of the Passive.
vah, to carry, Passive Base=vuyh: vuyhŒmi, vuyhasi, vuyhati, vuyhe, vuyhase, vuyhate, etc.
vas, to live, Passive Base=vuss: vussŒmi, vussasi, vussati, etc.
yaj, to sacrifice, Passive base=ijj, to be sacrificed ijjŒmi, ijjasi, ijjati, etc.
vac, to speak, Passive Base=ucc: uccŒmi, uccasi uccati, etc.
vac, to speak, Passive Base=vucc :vuccŒmi, vuccasi vuccati etc.

490. Final s of a root, which is not usually susceptible of reduplication is, however, sometimes found reduplicated as:
dis, to see, becomes, dissati, to be seen.
nas, to destroy=nassati, to be destroyed.

Causative Verbs

491. Causal or Causative verbs are formed by adding to the root the suffixes:
(i) aya, which is often contracted to e.
(ii) Œpaya, which likewise may be contracted to Œpe.

492. (i) The radical vowel of the root is guated or strengthened before these suffixes, if followed by one consonant only.
(ii) It remains unchanged when it is followed by two consonants.
(iii) In some cases, radical a is not lengthened although followed by a single consonant.
(iv) Roots in i, and u, form their causal from the Special Base.
(v) Other verbs, too, may form the causal from the Special Base.
(vi) Some roots in a take Œpe, Œpaya.

Root Causative Bases.
pac, to cook, pŒce, pŒcaya, pŒcŒpe, pŒcŒpaya, to cause to cook. (i)
kar, to do, kŒre, kŒraya, kŒrŒpe, kŒrŒpaya, to cause to do. (i)
gah, to take gŒhe, gŒhaya, gŒhŒpe, gŒhŒpaya, to cause to take. (i)
mar, to kill, mŒre, mŒraya, mŒrŒpe, mŒrŒpaya, to cause to kill. (i)
sam, to be appeased, same, samaya, samŒpe, samŒpaya, to cause to be appeased. (iii)
gam, to go game, gamaya, to cause to go, (iii): we find also; gŒme.
chid, to cut, chede, chedaya, chedŒpe, chedŒpaya, to cause to cut. (i)
bhuj, to eat bhoje, bhojaya, bhojŒpe, bhojŒpaya, to cause to eat. (i)
rudh, to hinder, rodhe, rodhaya, rodhŒpe; rodhŒpaya, to cause to hinder. (i)
bhid, to break, bhede bhedaya, bhedŒpe, bhedŒpaya, to cause to break. (i)
su, to hear, sŒve, sŒvaya, sŒvŒpe, sŒvŒpaya, to cause to hear. (iv)
bh, to be, bhŒve bhŒvaya, etc (iv)
s, to lie down, sŒye. sŒyaya, sayŒpe, sayŒpaya to cause to lie down. (iv, iii)
n, to lead, nŒyaya nayŒpe nayŒpaya, to cause to lead. (iv, iii)
pucch, to ask, pucchŒpe, pucchŒpaya, to cause to ask. (ii).
dhŒ, to place, pidhŒpe, pidhŒpaya, to cause to shut. (vi).
with prefix pi, pidahŒpe, pidahŒpaya, to cause to shut. (v, ii).
dŒ, to give, dŒpe dŒpaya, to cause to give.
hŒ, to stand, hape, hapaya, to place (vi, with a shortened).

Double Causal

493. There is a double causal formed by adding ŒpŒpe to the root.

Root. Simple Causal. Double Causal.
pac, to cook, pŒce, pŒcŒpe, etc., pŒcŒpŒpe, pŒcŒpŒpaya.
chid, to cut, chede, chedŒpe, ctc., chedŒpŒpe, chedŒpŒpaya.
bhuj, to eat, bhoje, bhojŒpe, etc., bhojŒpŒpe, bhojŒpŒpaya.

Remarks. The double causal may be translated by "to get to, or, to make to cause to." For instance: So purisa dŒsa odana pŒcŒpŒpeti. "He causes the man to cause the slave to cook the food." or "He got the man to make the slave to cook the food."
Note that the first accusative or object purisa
may be and is often, replaced by an Instrumentive.

494. The causative verbs are declined like the verbs in i, of the 1st conjugation, 3rd Division (393, 385) and like the verbs of the 7th conjugation. (379)

pac, to cook, causative base pŒce, pŒcaya, pŒcŒpe, pŒcŒpaya, to cause to cook.
1. pŒcemi, pŒcayŒmi, pŒcŒpemi, pŒcŒpayŒmi, I cause to cook.
2. pŒcesi, pŒcayasi, pŒcŒpesi, pŒcŒpayasi, thou causest to cook.
3. pŒceti, pŒcayati, pŒcŒpeti, pŒcŒpayati, he causes to cook.
1. pŒcema, pŒcayŒma, pŒcŒpema, pŒcŒpayŒma, we cause to cook.
2. pŒcetha, pŒcayatha, pŒcŒpetha, pŒcŒpayatha, you cause to cook.
3. pŒcenti, pŒcayanti pŒcŒpenti, pŒcŒpayanti, they cause to cook.
1. pŒceyyŒmi, pŒcayeyyŒmi, pŒcŒpeyyŒmi, pŒcŒpayeyyŒmi, I should cause, etc.
2. pŒceyyŒsi, pŒcayeyyŒsi, pŒcŒpeyyŒsi, pŒcŒpayeyyŒsi, thou shouldst cause, etc.
3. pŒceyya, pŒcayeyya, pŒcŒpeyya, pŒcŒpayeyya, he should cause, etc.
1. pŒceyyŒma, pŒcayeyyŒma, pŒcŒpeyyŒma, pŒcŒpayeyyŒma, we should cause, etc.
2. pŒceyyŒtha pŒcayeyyŒtha pŒcŒpeyyŒtha, pŒcŒpayeyyŒtha, you should cause, etc.
3. pŒceyyu
, pŒcayeyyu, pŒcŒpeyyu, pŒcŒpayeyyu, they should cause, etc.
And so on for the other tenses.

(a) The bases in e and pe take the Sigmatic Aorist Endings (418, 419).
(b) The bases in aya take the other Endings (407, b). As, pŒcesi
, pŒcesi, pŒcŒpesi, pŒcayi, pŒcayi, pŒcŒpayi, pŒcŒpayi, etc.

Causal Passive

495. The passive of a causal verb is formed by joining the suffix ya of the Passive to the Causative Base, by means of i, lengthened to , final vowel e of the Causative base having been dropped first. The Causal Passive may be translated by "caused to... , made to do..." the action expressed by the root.

Root. Simple Verb Causal. Causal Passive
pac, to cook pacati pŒceti, pŒcyati, to be caused to cook.
bhuj, to eat bhu–jati, bhojeti, bhojyati, to be caused to eat.
kar, to do karoti kŒreti, kŒryati, to be caused to do.
Remark. Connective vowel i may also be found short.

496. Some verbs, although in the Causative, have merely a transitive sense as:
car, to go, Causative cŒreti, to cause to go=to administer (an estate).
bh, to be, Causative bhŒveti, to cause to=to cultivate, practise.

497. Verbs of the 7th Conjugation form their causal by adding Œpe or Œpaya to the base, the final vowel of the base having first been dropped.
Root. Base
cur, to steal, core.
kath, to tell, kathe.
tim, to wet, teme.
Simple Verb. Causal.
coreti, corayati, corŒpeti, corŒpayati.
katheti, kathayati, kathŒpeti, kathŒpayati.
temeti, temayati, temŒpeti, temŒpayati.

Denominative Verbs

498. So called because they are formed from a noun stem by means of certain suffixes.

499. The meaning of the Denominative Verb is susceptible of several renderings in English; it generally expresses:
(a) "to act as, to be like, to wish to be like" that which is denoted by the noun.
(b) "to wish for, to desire" that which is signified by the noun.
(c) "to change or make into" that which is denoted by the noun.
(d) "to use or make use of" that which is expressed by the noun.

500. The suffixes used to form Denominative Verbal Stems are:
(i) Œya, aya, e.
(ii) ya, iya.
(iii) a.
(iv) Œra, Œla. (These two rather rare).
(v) Œpe.

501. The base or stem having been obtained by means of the above suffixes, the Personal Endings of the tenses are added exactly as they are after other verbs.

Noun Stem Denominative Verbs.
pabbata, a mountain. pabbatŒyati, to act like a mountain.
macchara, avarice. macchŒrayati, to be avaricious (lit. to act avariciously).
samudda, the ocean. sammuddŒyati, to be or act like the ocean.
nad, river. nadiyiti, to do, act like a river.
ara––a, forest. ara––yati, to act (in town) as in the forest.
dhana, riches. dhanayati, dhanŒyati, to desire riches.
putta, a son. puttyati, to desire, or treat as a son.
patta, a bowl. pattyati, to wish for a bowl.
cvara, monk's robe. cvaryati, to desire a robe.
dolŒ, a palankin. dolŒyati, to desire a, or wish for one's own palankin.
vŒ, a lute. vŒyati, to use the lute, to play on the lute.
upakkama, diligence, plan. upakkkamŒlati, to make diligence, to devise plans.
gaa, a following. gaayati, to wish for a following or disciples.
samodhŒna, a connection. samodhŒneti, to connect, join.
sŒrajja, modesty. sŒrajjati, to be shy, nervous shyness.
tahŒ, craving. tahŒyati, tahyati, to crave.
, love. mettŒyati, to love.
karua, mercy, pity. karuŒyati, to pity.
sukha, happiness. sukhŒpeti, to make happy.
dukkha, misery. dukkhŒpeti, to make miserable.
uha, heat. uhŒpeti, to heat, warm.
jaŒ, matted hair, vijaŒyati, disentangle, comb out.
tangled branches.
pariyosŒna, end. pŒriyosŒnati, to end, to cease.

502. Denominatives can also be formed from the stems of adjectives and adverbs; as:
daha, firm, strong, dahŒyati, to make firm, strong.
, being good, santarati to act well, or handsomely.
aa, afflicted, hurt, aayati, to hurt, afflict.

(a) Suffixes Œra and Œla are simply modifications of aya.
(b) There is an uncommon way of forming Denominative Verbs from nouns: the 1st, 2nd or 3rd syllable of the noun is reduplicated and the suffix yisa or yisa added to the word thus reduplicated; the vowel u or i may or may not be inserted between the reduplication. (Niruttidpan).
Noun Stem. Denominative Verb.
putta, son, pupputtyisati, to wish to be (as) a son.
putta, a son, puttittiyisati, to wish to be (as) a son.
, flower, kakamalŒyisati or kamamalŒyisati or kamalalŒyisati, to wish to be (as) a flower.
(c) The Causal and Passive of all Denominatives are formed in the usual manner.

Desiderative Verbs

503. As its very name indicates, the Desiderative Conjugation expresses the wish or desire to do or be that which is denoted by the simple root.

504. The Desiderative is not extensively used in PŒli; however, it is frequent enough to warrant a careful perusal of the rules for its formation.

505. The suffix sa is the characteristic sign of this conjugation; another characteristic is the reduplication of the root according to the rules already given (372). The student ought first to look carefully over those rules.
Root. Desiderative Base. Desiderative Verb.
su, to hear, sussusa sussusati, to desire to hear=listens. (33,372-7c).
bhuj, to eat bubhukkha, bubhukkhati, to wish to eat. (86, 372-5).
tij, to bear, titikkha, titikkhati, to endure, be patient. (86, 372-7b).
ghas, to eat, jighaccha, jighacchati, to desire to eat. (89, 372-7a).
pŒ, to drink, pipŒsa, pivŒsa pivŒsati, to desire to drink. (372-7a).
(pivŒsa, from the root).
kit, to cure, cikiccha, cikicchati, to desire to cure, to treat. (88; 372-2).

506. It will be remarked that the initial s of sa is mostly assimilated.

507. The bases being obtained, the personal endings are added as usual.
Remark. The Causal and Passive are formed in the usual way.

Intensive Verbs

508. The Intensive Verbs also called Frequentative Verbs, express the frequent repetition or the intensification of the action denoted by the simple root. The characteristic of the Intensive Conjugation is the reduplication of the root according to the usual rules (372).

509. These verbs are not very frequent in PŒli.
Root. Intensive Verb.
lap, to talk. lŒlappati, lŒlapati, to lament.
kam, to go. cakamati, to walk to and fro.
gam, to go. jagamati, to go up and down.
cal, to move. ca–calati to move to and fro, to tremble.
The personal endings are added as usual.

510. Defective and Anomalous Verbs
as, to be
Present System.
Singular Plural.
1. asmi, amhi, I am. asma, amha, we are.
2. asi, thou art. attha, you are.
3. atthi, he is. santi, they are.
Singular Plural.
1. asmi, amhi, let me be. asma, amha, let us be.
2. ahi, be thou. attha, be ye.
3. atthu, let him,her, it be. santu, let them be.
Present Participle.
Active Reflective.
Masc. santo, being. samŒno, being.
Fem. sant, being. samŒnŒ, being.
Neut. santa
, being. samŒna, being.
Active Reflective.
1. Œsi
, I was, I have been. ŒsimhŒ, Œsimha, we were, we have been.
2. Œsi, thou wast, thou hast been. Œsittha, you were, you have been.
3. Œsi, he was, he has been. Œsu
, Œsisu, they were, they have been.
Active Reflective.
1. assa
, if I were or should be. assŒma, if we were or should be.
2. assa, if thou wert or should be. assatha, if you were or should be.
3. assa, siyŒ, if he were or should be. assu, siyu
, if they were or should be.

511. h, to be. (h is a contracted form of root bh).
Present System.
Present. Imperfect.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. homi, homa. ahuva, ahuva
, ahuvamha, ahuvamhŒ.
2. hosi, hotha. ahuvo, ahuvattha.
3. hoti, honti. ahuva, ahuvŒ, ahuvu.
Imperative. Optative.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. homi, homa. heyyŒmi, heyyŒma.
2. hohi, homa. heyyŒsi, heyyŒtha.
3. hotu, hontu. heyya heyyu
Present Participle.
Masc. honto. Fem. hont. Neut. honta
Singular. Plural.
1. ahosi
, ahu, ahosimhŒ, ahumhŒ.
2. ahosi, ahosittha.
3. ahosi, ahu, ahesu
, ahu.
The Future has already been given (436).
Infinitive. Gerund. Future. P.P.
. hutvŒ. hotabbo.

512. kar, to do, make.
The present Active has already been given (403).
Present System.
Singular. Plural.
1. kubbe. kubbamhe, kurumhe
2. kubbase, kuruse. kubbavhe, kuruvhe.
3. kubbate, kurute, kubbati. kubbante, kurunte.
1. kare, kubbe, kubbeyya.
kareyya, kayirŒ, kayirŒmi.
2. kare, kubbe, kubbeyyŒsi,
kareyyŒsi, kayirŒ, kayirŒsi,
3. kare, kubbe, kayirŒ, kubbeyya,
1. kareyyŒma, kubbeyyŒma, kayirŒma.
2. kareyyŒtha, kubbetha, kayirŒtha.
3. kareyya
, kubbeyya, kayira.
Active Reflective.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. akara, akaramhŒ. akari
, akaramhase.
2. akaro, akarattha. akarase, akaravha
3. akara, akaru. akarattha, akaratthu
The Aorist has been given (412).
Singular. Plural.
1. karomi, karoma.
2. kuru, karohi, karotha.
3. karotu, kurutu, karontu, kubbantu.
Singular. Plural.
1. kubbe, kubbŒmase.
2. kurussu, kuruvho.
3. kuruta
, kubbanta.
Besides the usual Future in ssŒmi: karissŒmi, karissasi, there is another form given in (436).
Present Participle.
Active. Reflective.
Masc. kara
, karonto. karamŒno, kurumŒno, karŒno, kubbŒno.
Fem. karont, karamŒnŒ, kurumŒnŒ, karŒnŒ, kubbŒnŒ.
Neut. kara
, karonta, karamŒna, kurumŒna, karŒna, kubbŒna.
Future Passive Part.
kattabbo, kŒtabbo, kŒriyo, kayiro, kayyo, karayo.
Remarks. All the forms in yira are obtained through metathesis, in kayyo the r has been assimilated.
Present Passive Part.
karyamŒno, kariyyamŒno, kayramŒno, kariyamŒno.
Passive Base.
The Passive Base has several forms:
karya, kariyya, kariya, kayira.

513. da, to give.
The Present Optative and Imperative have already been given.(395). The student will remark that some of the tenses are formed directly on the root: the Radical Aorist, the Sigmatic Aorist, the Future and the Conditional.
Radical Aorist. Sigmatic Aorist.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. ada
, adamhŒ. adŒsi, adŒsimhŒ.
2. ado, adattha. adŒsi, adŒsittha.
3. ada, ada
su, adu. adŒsi, adŒsu, adŒsisu.
a. From the Base. b. From the Root.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. dadissŒmi, dadissŒma. dassŒmi, dassŒma.
2. dadissasi, dadissatha. dassasi, dassatha.
3. dadissati, dadissanti. dassati, dassanti.
Sing. Plur.
1. adassa
, adassamhŒ.
2. adasse, adassatha.
3. adassŒ, adassa
Present. P.P.P. Active P.P.
, dadanto. dinno. dinnavŒ.
Fut. P. Fut. P. P.
. dŒtabbo.
dadassanto. dŒyo.
Pres. Reflect. Part.
dadamŒno. dadamŒnŒ. dadamŒna

Verbal Prefixes

514. The Prefixes or Prepositions, called in PŒli: Upasagga (23, Remark), are prefixed to verbs and their derivatives; they have been, on that account, called Verbal Prefixes. They generally modify the meaning of the root, or intensify it, and sometimes totally alter it; in many cases, they add but little to the original sense of the root.

515. The usual rules of sandhi apply when these prefixes are placed before verbs. When a prefix is placed before a tense with the augment a, the augment must not change its position, but remain between the prefix and the root, as; agŒ+ati=accagŒ (74, i), and not; ŒtigŒ

516. These prefixes are as follows:
Π- to, at, towards, near to, until, as far as, away, all round.
kah, to drag, draw=Œkahati, to draw towards, to drag away.
kir, to pour, scatter=Œkirati, to scatter all over or around, to fill.
cikkh, to show, tell=Œcikkhati, to point out, tell to (to communicate).
chad, to cover=acchŒdeti, to cover over or all around, to put on clothes (33, 35).
Remarks. This prefix reverses the meaning of some roots;
dŒ, to give, but ŒdŒti, to take.
gam, to go, base: gaccha=Œgacchati, to come.

ati (before vowel=acc.) beyond, across, over, past, very much, very; it expresses excess.
kam, to step, go=atikkamati (33), to step over to go across, go past, to escape, overcome, transgress, excell, to elapse.
n, to lead=atineti, to lead over or across, to irrigate.
car, to act,=aticarati, to act beyond, too much, in excess=to transgress.

adhi (before vowels=ajjh), over, above, on, upon, at, to in, superior to, great, it expresses sometimes superiority.
vas, to live=adhivasati, to live in, to inhabit.
gam, to go=ajjhagamŒ, he approached=adhi+augment a+gamŒ(Aorist).
bhŒs, to speak=adhibhŒsati, to speak to, to address.

anu, after, along, according to, near to, behind, less than, in consequence of, beneath.
kar, to do=anukaroti, to do like, viz., to imitate, to ape.
kam, to go=anukkamati, to go along with, to follow.
dhŒv, to run=anudhŒvati, to run after to pursue.
gah, to take=anugahati, to take near, beneath=to protect.

apa, off, away, away from, forth: it also implies detraction, hurt, reverence.
ci, to notice, observe=apacŒyati, to honour, respect; apaciti, reverence.
n, to lead=opaneti, to lead away, viz., to take away, remove.
gam, to go,=apagacchati, to go away.
man, to think=apama––ati, to despise.

api, on, over, unto, close upon. This prefix is very seldom used; it is prefixed mostly to the roots: dhŒ, to put, set, lay, and nah, to bind, join. It is moreover found abbreviated to pi in most instances.
dhŒ, to put, set, lay=pidahati, to cover, close, shut. apidhana, pidahana, pidhŒna, covering, lid, cover.
nah, to bind, join=pinayhati, to bind on, join on.

abhi, to, unto, towards, against, in the direction of. lt also expresses excess, reverence, particularity. (Before a vowel=abbh).
gam, to go=abhigacchati, to go towards, approach.
kakh, to desire, abhikakhati=to desire particularly, to long for, yearn.
jal to blaze=abhijalati, to blaze excessively, viz, fiercely.
vand, to salute=abhivandati, to salute reverentially.

ava, down, off, away, back, aside, little, less. Implies also: disrespect, disregard.
Remarks. ava, is often contracted to o.
jŒ, to know=avajŒnŒti, to despise.
har, to take=avaharati, to take away. avahŒro, taking away.
khip, to throw=avakhipati, to throw down.
lok, luk, to look=oloketi, to look down=avaloketi.

ud (=the u of native grammarians; for the assimilation of final d to the following consonants see 58, 60, 62, 65. Before h, sometimes final d is lost and the u lengthened.)
Upwards, above, up, forth, out.
khip, to throw=ukkhipati, to throw up, get rid of; ukkhepana, excommunication.
chid, to cut=ucchindati, to cut off.
hŒ, to stand=uhahati to stand up, rise, uhŒna
, rising.
har, to take=uddharati (96) to draw out. uddharaa
, pulling out.
Remark. ud reverses the meaning of a few verbs
pat, to fall=uppatati, to leap up, spring up.
nam, to bend=unnamati, to rise up, ascend.

upa unto, to, towards, near, with, by the side of, as, like, up to, (opposed to apa), below, less.
kah to drag=upakahati, to drag or draw towards, to draw below or down.
kar, to do=upakaroti, to do something towards unto; viz, to help, upakŒro, help, use; upakaraa
, instrument (lit. doing with).
kam to step, go=upakkamati, to attack, (lit. to go towards).

ni (sometimes lengthened to n, and before a vowel=nir) out, forth, down, into, downwards, in, under.
kam, to go=nikkhamati, to go out, to depart.
dhŒ, to place=nidahati or nidheti, to deposit, hide.
har, to take=nharati, to take out.
han, to strike=nihanti, to strike down.

pa, onward, forward to, forth, fore, towards, with. It expresses beginning.
bhŒ, to shine=pabhŒti to shine forth, to dawn. pabhŒ, radiance.
bh, to be=pabhavati, to begin to be, viz., to spring up, to originate.
jal, to burn=pajjalati, to burn forth, to blaze.

pati, pai against, back to, in reverse direction, back again in return, to, towards, near.
bhŒs, to speak=paibhŒsati. to speak back, to reply.
khip, to throw=paikkhipati, to refuse. paikkhepo, refusing.
kam, to step=paikkamati, to step back, to retreat.

parŒ, away, back, opposed to, aside, beyond.
kam, to go=parakkamati, to strive, put forth effort.
ji, to conquer=parŒjeti, to overcome.

pari, around, all around, about, all about, all over. Expresses completeness, etc.
car, to walk=paricarati, to walk around, viz,. to serve, honour.
paricŒro, attendance; paricca, having encircled (=pari+i+tya).
chid, to cut=paricchindati, to cut around, to limit, mark out.
dhŒv, to run=paridhŒvati, to run about.
jŒ, to know=parijŒnŒti, to know perfectly, exactly.

vi, asunder, apart, away, without. Implies separation, distinctness, dispersion.
chid, to cut=vicchindati, to cut or break asunder, to break off, interrupt.
jŒ to know=vijŒnŒti, to know distinctly, to discern; vijŒna
, knowing.
kir, to scatter=vikirati, to scatter about, to spread.

sam, with, along, together, fully, perfectly.
bhuj, to eat=sambhu–jati, to eat with.
vas, to live=sa
vasati, to live together with; savŒso, living with.
Remarks. It should be borne in mind that two, and sometimes three, of the above prefixes may combine. The most common combinations are:
vyŒ, written byŒ (=vi+Œ); vyŒkaroti, to explain (kar); vyŒpajjati, to fall away (pad, to go).
ajjho (=adhi+o, o=ava), ajjhottharati, to overwhelm (thar, to spread).
ajjhŒ (=adhi+a), ajjhŒvasati, to dwell in (vas) ajjhŒseti, to lie upon (s).
anupa (=anu+pa), anupakhŒdati, to eat into (khad); anupabbajati to give up the world (vaj, to go).
anupari (=anu+pari), anuparidhŒvati, to run up and down (dhav); anupariyŒti, to go round and round (yŒ).
anusam (=anu+sam) anusagito, chanted together rehearsed; anusa–carati, to cross.
samud (=sam+ud), samukka
sati, to exalt; samucchindati, to extirpate (chid); samudeti, to remove (i).
samudŒ (sam+ud+Œ) samudŒcarati, to address, practise (car); samudŒhao, produced (har);
samudŒgamo, beginning (gam).
samupa(=sam+upa) samupeti, to approach (i); samupagacchati: to approach.
samŒ (=sam+Œ), samŒharati, to gather (har); samŒgamo, assembly (gam).
samabhi (=sam+abhi), samabhisi–cati, to sprinkle (si–c).
upasam (=upa+sam) upasa
harati, to bring together (har); upasavasati, to take up one's abode in (vas, to live).
Remark. The student must be prepared to meet with some other combinations; the general meaning of a word can always be traced from the sense of the several combined prefixes.

517. It is important to note that the prefixes or prepositions are used, not only with verbs, but also with verbal derivatives, nouns and adjectives, as: anutre, along the bank; adhicitta, high thought; abhinlo, very black.

518. pari is often written: pali (72).

519. pari, vi and sam very often add merely an intensive force to the root.

520. After prefixes, sam upa, parŒ, pari, and the word pura, in front, kar sometimes assumes the form: khar. E.g. purakkharoti, to put in front, to follow=pura+kar: parikkharo,

521. A few adverbs are used very much in the same way as the Verbal Prefixes, but their use is restricted to a few verbs only. They are:

Œvi=in full view, in sight, in view, manifestly, visibly. It is prefixed to the verbs: bhavati (bh) and karoti (kar).
Œvibhavati to become manifest, visible, to appear, be evident; Œvikaroti, to make manifest, clear, evident; to explain, show.

antara=among within, between, used with dhŒ, to put, place; e.g. antaradhŒyati, to vanish, disappear, hide; antaradhŒpeti, to cause to vanish or disappear.

attha (adv. and noun)=home; disappearance, disappearing, setting; used with verbs of going=to set, disappear (of moon, sun and stars). Mostly used with the verbs gacchati and eti (i), to go.
atthagacchati, to disappear, to set; atthameti, to set (of the sun).

pŒtu (before a vowel: patur)=forth to view, manifestly, evidently, used with bhavati and karoti.
pŒtubhavati, to become manifest, evident, clear, to appear, to arise; pŒtubhŒvo, appearance, manifestation; pŒtukaroti, to manifest, make clear, evident; to produce.

pura, in front, forward, before, used almost exclusively with karoti, (520).
purakkharoti, to put or place in front, to appoint or make a person (one's) leader, and thence: to follow, to revere.

ala, fit, fit for, used with verb karoti in the sense of decorating. E.g. alakaroti, to adorn, embellish, decorate.

tiro, out of sight; across, beyond, prefixed to roots kar and dhŒ, in the sense of covering, hiding, etc.
tirodhŒpeti, to veil, to cover, put out of sight; tirodhŒna, a covering, a veil; tirokaroti, to veil, to screen; tirokarai, a screen, a veil.

522. Prefixes du and su are never used with verbs. (See Chapter on Adverbs), and prefix a (an), is very seldom so used.

523. To finish this chapter on Verbs, we will now give the paradigm of a verb fully conjugated:

Present System.
pac, to cook. (stem paca).
Present. I cook, etc.
Active Voice. Reflective Voice.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. pacŒmi, pacŒma. pace, pacŒmhe.
2. pacasi, pacatha. pacase, pacavhe.
3. pacati, pacanti pacate, pacare, pacante.
Imperfect. I cooked, etc.
Active Voice. Reflective Voice.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. apaca, apacamhŒ. apaci
, apacamha. apacamhase.
2. apaco, apacattha. apacase, apacavha
3. apaca, apacu. apacattha, apacatthu
Imperative. Let me cook etc.
Active Voice. Reflective Voice.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. pacŒmi, pacŒma, pace, pacŒmŒse.
2. pacŒhi, paca, pacatha, pacassu, pacavho.
3. pacatu, pacantu, pacata
, pacanta.
Optative. I should, would, could, can, etc., cook.
Active Voice. Reflective Voice.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. paceyyŒmi, paceyyŒma. paceyya
, paceyyŒmhe.
2. paceyyŒsi, paceyyŒtha. pacetho, paceyyavho.
3. paceyya, paceyyu
. pacetha, pacera.
Present Participle.
Active Reflective
Masc. paca
, pacamŒno.
pacanto, pacŒno.
Fem. pacat, pacamŒnŒ.
pacant, pacŒnŒ.
Neut. paca
, pacamŒna.
, pacŒna.

Aorist System.
(Stem pac).
Aorist. I cooked, or, I have cooked, etc.
Active Voice. Reflective Voice.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. apaci
, apacimhŒ. apaca, apacimhe.
2. apaci, apacittha. apacise, apacivha
3. apaci, apacu
. apacŒ, apacu.
apac, apaci
su. apac, apacisu.
Remarks. The augment a may be left out.

Perfect System.
(Stem: papac)
Perfect. I cooked, etc.
Active Voice. Reflective Voice.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. papaca, papacimha. papaci, papacimhe.
2. papace, papacittha. papacittho, papacivho.
3. papaca, papacu. papacittha, papacire.
Perfect Participle Active. Having cooked.
Active Voice. Reflective Voice.
Masc. pacitavŒ, pacitavŒ.
pacitavanto, pacitavanto.
pacitŒv, pacitŒv
Fem. pacitavat, pacitavat.
pacitavant, pacitavant.
pacitŒvin, pacitŒvin.
Neut. pacitava
, pacitava.
, pacitavanta.
pacitŒvi, pacitŒvi.
Remark. The Perfect Participle is the same for the Reflective as for the Active Voice. (For formation, see 465).

Future System.
(Stem: pacissa)
Future. I shall cook, etc.
Active Voice. Reflective Voice.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. pacissŒmi, pacissŒma. pacissa
, pacissŒmhe.
2. pacissasi, pacissatha. pacissase, pacissavhe.
3. pacissati, pacissanti. pacissate, pacissante.
Conditional. If I could cook, etc.
Active Voice. Reflective Voice.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. apacissa
, apacissamhŒ. apacissa, apacissŒmhase.
2. apacisse, apacissatha. apacissase, apacissavhe.
3. apacissŒ, apacissa
su. apacissatha, apacissisu.
Future Participle.
Active Voice. Reflective Voice.
Masc. pacissa
, pacissamŒno.
pacissanto, pacissŒno.
Fem. pacissat, pacissamŒnŒ.
pacissant, pacissŒnŒ.
Neut. pacissa
, pacissamŒna.
, pacissŒna.

Infinitive: pacitu.
Gerund: pacitvŒ, pacitvŒna, pacitna, paciya.
Fut. P.P.: pacitabba, pacanya.
P.P.P.: pacita.

524. A Paradigm of cur, to steal. Base coraya or core.

Present System. Active Voice
First form. (base, coraya). Second form (base, core).
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. corayŒmi, corayŒma. coremi, corema.
2. corayasi, corayatha. coresi, coretha.
3. corayati, corayanti. coreti, corenti.
Imperfect. (from base coraya only).
Sing. Plur.
1. acoraya, acorayamhŒ.
, acorayamha.
2. acorayo, acorayattha.
3. acoraya, acorayu.
First form. (base, coraya). Second form (base, core).
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. corayŒmi, corayŒma. coremi, corema.
2. corayŒhi, corayatha. corehi, coretha.
3. corayatu, corayantu. coretu, corentu.
First form. (base, coraya). Second form (base, core).
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. corayeyyŒmi, corayeyyŒma. coreyyŒmi, coreyyŒma.
2. corayeyyŒsi, corayeyyŒtha. coreyyŒsi, coreyyŒtha.
3. corayeyya, corayeyyu
. coreyya, coreyyu.
Present Participle
First form. (base, coraya). Second form (base, core).
Masc. coraya
, corayanto. corento.
Fem. corayat, corayant. corent.
Neut. coraya
, corayanta. corenta.

Aorist System.
First form. (base, coraya). Second form (base, core).
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. corayi
, corayimhŒ. coresi, coresimhŒ,
corayimha. coresimha.
2. corayi, corayittha. coresi, coresittha.
3. corayi, corayu
, coresi, coresu,
su. coresisu.

Perfect System.
(The Perfect Tense of these verbs is not generally met with but it would be: cucora, cucore, cucorimha, etc).
Perfect Participle Active.
Base coraya. Base core.
Masc. corayitavŒ, coritavŒ,
corayitavanto, coritavanto.
corayitŒv, coritŒv.
Fem. corayitavat, coritavat.
corayitavant, coritavant.
corayitŒvin, coritŒvin.
Neut. corayitava
, coritava.
, coritavanta.
corayitŒvi, coritŒvi.

Future System.
First form. (base, coraya). Second form (base, core).
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. corayissŒmi, corayissŒma. coressŒmi, coressŒma.
2. corayissasi, corayissatha. coressasi. coressatha.
3. corayissati, corayissanti. coressati, coressanti.
First form. (base, coraya). Second form (base, core).
1. acorayissa
, acorayissamhŒ.
2. acorayisse, acorayissatha.
3. acorayissŒ, acorayissa
Future Participle.
First form. (base, coraya). Second form (base, core).
Masc. corayissa
, coressa.
corayissanto, coressanto.
Fem. corayissat, coressat.
corayissant, coressant.
Neut. corayissa
, coressa.
, coressanta.
Pres. Participle Reflective.
Masc. corayamŒno, corayŒno.
Fem. corayamŒnŒ, corayŒnŒ.
Neut. corayamŒna
, corayŒna.

Infinitive. corayitu, coretu.
Gerund. corayitvŒ, coretvŒ.
P.P.F. corayitabbo, coretabbo
P.P.P. corito, coritŒ, corita

525. The Reflective Voice presents no difficulty; it is generally formed on the base in aya:
Present. Imperfect.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
1. coraye, corayŒmhe. acoraya
, acorayŒmhase.
2. corayase, corayavhe. acorayase, acorayavha
3. corayate, corayante. acorayattha, acorayatthu

Passive Voice

526. The Passive Voice is formed in the usual way by joining ya to the base by means of vowel i lengthened to , the final vowel of the base being dropped before .

Singular. Plural.
1. coryŒmi, I am robbed. coryamŒ, we are robbed.
2. coryasi, thou art robbed. coryatha, you are robbed
3. coryati, he is robbed. coryanti, they are robbed .
And so on for the other tenses.

527. The Causal and the Denominative Verbs are conjugated exactly like coreti.

528. The following paradigm will familiarize the student with the changes which take place in the principal forms of the Verb:

Root Special Base Active Reflect. Passive Causal Causal Passive
pac, to cook paca pacati pacate paccate, paccati pŒceti, pŒcŒpeti, pŒcayati, pŒcŒpayati. pŒciyati, pŒcŒpiyati.
dŒ, to give dadŒ dadŒti dadate diyate, diyati dŒpati, dŒpŒpeti dŒpiyati
n, to lead ne, naya neti, nayati nayate niyate, niyati, niyyati nŒyayati, nayŒpeti, nayŒpayati nayŒpiyati
han, to kill hana hanati, hanti hanate ha––ate, ha––ati haneti, hanŒpeti, hanayati, hanŒpayati hanŒpiyati, hanayiyati
khŒd, to eat khŒda khŒdati khŒdate khŒjjate, khŒjjati khŒdeti, khŒdayati, khŒdŒpeti, khŒdŒpayati khŒdapiyati, khŒdŒpiyati
lu, to cut lunŒ lunŒti lunate lyate, lyati lŒveti, lŒvayati lŒviyati
bh, to be bhava bhavati bhavate bhyate, bhyati bhŒveti, bhŒvayati, bhŒvŒpeti, bhŒvŒpayati bhŒviyati
labh, to get labha labhati labhate labbhate, labbhati labheti, labhayati, labhŒpeti, labhŒpayati labhŒpiyati
su, to hear suŒ, suo suŒti, suoti suate syate, syati sŒveti, suapeti sŒviyati