A Practical Grammar of the PŒli Language
Chapter 9

Pronouns, Pronominal Adjectives, and Pronominal Derivatives

288. (I) Personal Pronouns

289. Declension of Aha, I

Of All Genders
Singular Plural
aha, I. maya, we.
amhe, we.
, we.
mama, my, mine.
, my, mine.
, my, mine.
, my, mine.
amhŒka, our, ours.
, our, ours.
Œka, our, ours.
no, our, ours.
mama, to me, for me.
, to me, for me.
, to me, for me.
, to me, for me.
me, to me, for me.
amhŒka, to us, for us
, to us, for us.
Œkam, to us, for us,
no, to us, for us.
ma, me.
. me.
amhe, us.
Œkam, us.
asme, us.
amhe, us.
no, us.
mayŒ, me, by me. amhehi, by us.
amhebhi, by us.
no, by us.
mayŒ, me, from me. amhehi, from us.
amhebhi, from us.
no, from us.
mayi, in, on, upon me. amhesu, in, on, upon us.
Œsu, in, on, upon us.
asmesu, in, on, upon us.

(a) The singular base of aha
is mad according to Sanskrit commentators; it is properly ma and mam. Pronominal derivatives are, however, formed from the three bases: mad, mam and ma, the latter sometimes with the a lengthened: mΠ(See Pronominal Derivation at the end of the present chapter.)
(b) The form me, of the Gen., Dat., Ins., Abl., Sing., is enclitic; it is never used at the beginning of a sentence.
(c) The form no, of the same cases in the plural is also enclitic, and never used at the beginning of a sentence.
(d) The plural base is amha, or amhad.

290. Declension of Tva, Thou

Of All Genders
Singular Plural
tva, thou.
, thou.
, thou.
tumhe, you.
tava, thy, thine.
, thy, thine.
, thy, thine.
, thy, thine.
te, thy, thine.
tumhŒka, your, yours.
, your, yours.
vo, your, yours.
tava, to thee, for thee.
, to thee, for thee.
, to thee, for thee.
, to thee, for thee.
te, to thee, for thee.
tumhŒka, to you, for you.
, to you, for you.
vo, to you, for you.
tava, thee.
, thee.
, thee.
, thee.
, thee.
tumhe, you.
Œka, you.
vo, you.
tvayŒ, by thee.
Œ, by thee.
te, by thee.
tumhehi, by you.
tumhebhi, by you.
vo, by you.
tvayŒ, from thee.
Œ, from thee.
Œ, from thee.
te, from thee.
tumhehi, from you.
tumhebhi, from you.
vo, from you.
tvayi, in, on, upon thee.
tayi in, on, upon thee.
tumhesu, in, on, upon you.

(a) The bases are tad and ta (sometimes lengthened to t
Œ, in the singular).
(b) tumha (tumhad), is the plural base.
(c) te like me of aha
, is an enclitic form and never begins a sentence; so is vo for the plural.
(d) vo is also found in the Nom. plural.
(e) lt will be remarked that Pronouns have no forms for the Vocative case.

291. (II) Demonstrative Personal Pronouns

Declension of So, SŒ, Ta: This, That, He, She, It

292. Masculine: So, he, this, that

  Singular Plural
Nom. so, sa. te.
Gen. tassa. tesa, tesŒna.
Dat. tassa. tesa, tesŒna.
Acc. ta. te.
Ins. tena. tehi, tebhi.
Abl. tasmŒ, tamhŒ. tehi, tebhi.
Loc. tasmi, tamhi. tesu.

293. Feminine: SŒ, she, this, that

  Singular Plural
Nom. sŒ. tŒ, tŒyo.
Gen. tassŒ, tassŒya, tissŒ, tissŒya, tŒya. tŒsa, tŒsŒnam.
Dat. tassŒ, tassŒya, tissŒ, tissŒya, tŒya. tŒsa, tŒsŒnam.
Acc. ta. tŒ, tŒyo.
Ins. tŒya. tŒhi, tŒbhi.
Abl. tŒya. tŒhi, tŒbhi.
Loc. tassa, tissa, tŒya. tŒsu.

294. Neuter: Ta, it, this, that

  Singular Plural
Nom. ta, tad. tŒni.
Gen. tassa. tesa, tesŒna.
Dat. tassa. tesa, tesŒna.
Acc. ta, tad. tŒni.
Ins. tena. tehi, tebhi.
Abl. tasmŒ, tamhŒ. tehi, tebhi.
Loc. tasmi, tamhi. tesu.

(a) In the Gen., Dat., Abl., and Loc. singular for the Masc, and Neut, a form from pronominal stem: a, is also used: assa, asm
Œ, asmi in the Feminine too, for the Gen., Dat. and Loc. singular: assŒ, assa (Loc.).
(b) ln the Neuter, the form tad is used mostly in compound words, as:
tad (=ta
) karo=takkaro, "doing this", and also before a vowel.
(c) It will have been remarked that the stem ta, 3rd personal pronoun (so, s
Œ, ta), is also used as a demonstrative.
(d) ta is the base or stem of so, s
Œ, ta; as above said (Note b), the form tad of the base is also used.
(e) Very often, the above pronoun may be translated as the Definite Pronoun.
(f) It is, too, often used pleonastically with the pronouns aha
and tva, as are, in fact, most Demonstrative Pronouns; for instance:
= this I, viz., I.
tassa me (Dat.) = to this me, viz., to me.
Œ'yam (=sŒ aya) tahŒ = This longing.
(g) att
Πself; own (154), is, in its oblique cases, very much used in a reflexive sense, instead of the three Personal Pronouns.

295. There is a common substitute of so, sŒ, ta, obtained by replacing t wherever it occurs, by n, for the three genders. Thus we have:

Masculine Feminine Neuter
nassa=tassa. nŒya=tŒya. na=ta.
nena=tena. nassŒ=tassŒ. nena=tena.
na=ta. nassŒya=tassŒya. na=ta.
nasmŒ=tasmŒ. nassa=tassa. nasmŒ=tasmŒ.
nasmi=tasmi. nŒya=tŒya. nasmi=tasmi.
ne=te. nŒ=tŒ, tŒyo. ne=te.
nehi=tehi. nŒhi=tŒhi. nehi=tehi.
nesa=tesa. nŒsa=tŒsa. nesa=tesa.
nesu=tesu. nŒsu=tŒsu. nesu=tesu.

296. The forms with n as above given are generally used when a noun which has been already mentioned, is referred to; as,
khŒdŒpessŒmi nan 'ti, I'll make you eat him (viz., a monkey previously mentioned).

297. Demonstrative Pronouns

298. Declension of Eso, EsŒ, Eta: This

299. The student will readily perceive that the above Demonstratives are formed simply by prefixing e to so, sŒ and ta. They are declined exactly like so, sŒ, ta.

300. As in the case of so, sŒ and ta, so also with eso, esŒ and eta, the t may be replaced all through by n, so that we obtain the forms: enena, ena, enŒya, etc., whose declension presents no difficulty whatever. These forms are also used in referring to a noun aleady mentioned.

301. eso, esŒ, eta may be translated by "that" sometimes.

302. The Neuter etad (=eta) is used in composition before a vowel.

303. This Pronoun is also used pleonastically with a Personal Pronoun (294, f).

304. e, is considered as the base of Pronouns ena, eta etc. It is much used in derivation.

Declension of Aya: This; This here

305. Masculine

  Singular Plural
Nom. aya. ime.
Gen. assa, imassa. imesŒna, imesa, esŒna, esa.
Dat. assa, imassa. imesŒna, imesa, esŒna, esa.
Acc. ima. ime.
Ins. anena, iminŒ. imehi, imebhi, ehi, ebhi.
Abl. asmŒ, imasmŒ, imamhŒ. imehi, imebhi, ehi, ebhi.
Loc. asmi, imasmi, imamhi. imesu, esu.

306. Feminine

  Singular Plural
Nom. aya. imŒ, imŒyo.
Gen. assŒya, assŒ, imissŒya, imissŒ, imŒya. imŒsŒna, imŒsa.
Dat. assŒya, assŒ, imissŒya, imissŒ, imŒya. imŒsŒna, imŒsa.
Acc. ima. imŒ, imŒyo.
Ins. imŒya, assŒ, imissŒ. imŒhi, imŒbhi.
Abl. imŒya, assŒ, imissŒ. imŒhi, imŒbhi.
Loc. assa, imissa, assŒ, imissŒ, imŒya, imŒya. imŒsu.

307. Neuter

  Singular Plural
Nom. ida, ima. imŒni.
Gen. imassa, assa. imesa, imesŒna, esŒna, esa.
Dat. imassa, assa. imesa, imesŒna, esŒna, esa.
Acc. ida, ima. imŒni.
Ins. iminŒ, anena. imehi, imebhi, ehi, ebhi.
Abl. imasmŒ, amhŒ, asmŒ. imehi, imebhi, ehi, ebhi.
Loc. imasmi, asmi, imamhi. imesu, esu.

(a) The student will remark that the declension of aya
is based on two stems: a and i.
(b) Aya
is used substantively as well as pronominally.

Declension of Asu, That

308. Masculine

  Singular Plural
Nom. asu. am, amuyo.
Gen. amussa, adussa, amuno. amsa, amsŒna.
Dat. amussa, adussa, amuno. amsa, amsŒna.
Acc. amu. am, amuyo.
Ins. amunŒ. amhi, ambhi.
Abl. amusmŒ, amumhŒ, amunŒ. amhi, ambhi.
Loc. amusmi, amumhi. amsu.

309. Feminine

  Singular Plural
Nom. asu. am, amuyo.
Gen. amussŒ, amuyŒ. amsa, amsŒna.
Dat. amussŒ, amuyŒ. amsa, amsŒna.
Acc. amu. am, amuyo.
Ins. amuyŒ. amhi, ambhi.
Abl. amuyŒ. amhi, ambhi.
Loc. amussa, amuya. amsu.

310. Neuter

  Singular Plural
Nom. adu, amu. amni, am.
Gen. amussa, adussa. amsa, amsŒna.
Dat. amussa, adussa. amsa, amsŒna.
Acc. adu, amu. amni, am.
Ins. amunŒ. amhi, ambhi.
Abl. amusmŒ, amumhŒ, amunŒ. amhi, ambhi.
Loc. amusmi, amumhi. amsu.

(a) Some native grammarians also give amu for the Nom. Sing. in the Masculine and Feminine.
(b) It will be noticed that the stem is amu; in the Neuter, there are a few forms on the stem adu.
(c) To express: such, so and so ka is added to the stem, as, asuka, amuka.
(d) The forms asuka and amuka are often used to express some contempt.
(e) These two forms have in the plural Masc. and Neut acc. asuke, amuke.

311. Relative Pronouns

Declensions of Yo, YŒ, Ya

312. Masculine: Yo, who; he who; whoever; what

  Singular Plural
Nom. yo. ye.
Gen. yassa. yesa.
Dat. yassa. yesa.
Acc. ya. ye.
Ins. yena. yehi, yebhi.
Abl. yasmŒ, yamhŒ. yehi, yebhi.
Loc. yasmi, yamhi. yesu.

313. Feminine: YŒ, she; she who; whoever; what

  Singular Plural
Nom. yŒ. yŒ, yŒyo.
Gen. yŒya, yassŒ. yŒsa.
Dat. yŒya, yassŒ. yŒsa.
Acc. ya. yŒ, yŒyo.
Ins. yŒya. yŒhi, yŒbhi.
Abl. yŒya. yŒhi, yŒbhi.
Loc. yŒya, yassa. yŒsu.

314. Neuter: Ya, it; which; that which

  Singular Plural
Nom. ya, yad. yŒni.
Gen. yassa. yesa.
Dat. yassa. yesa.
Acc. ya, yad. yŒni.
Ins. yena. yehi, yebhi.
Abl. yasmŒ, yamhŒ. yehi, yebhi.
Loc. yasmi, yamhi. yesu.

(a) For the sake of greater emphasis, the Personal Pronouns, and also so aya
and eso are used pleonastically with yo.
(b) Yo is used with koci (323), in the three Genders as yo koci, yena kenaci, ya
kici, etc., both pronouns together meaning: whosoever, whoever, whatever, anyone, anything, etc.
(c) The form yad of the Neuter singular, is used before vowels and in composition.
(d) The base of yo is ya.

315. Interogative Pronouns

Declension of Ko, KŒ, Ki

316. Masculine: Ko, who? what?

  Singular Plural
Nom. ko. ke.
Gen. kassa, kissa. kesa, kesŒna.
Dat. kassa, kissa. kesa, kesŒna.
Acc. ka. ke.
Ins. kena. kehi, kebhi.
Abl. kasmŒ, kamhŒ. kehi, kebhi.
Loc. kasmi, kamhi, kismi, kimhi. kesu.

317. Feminine: KŒ, who? what?

  Singular Plural
Nom. kŒ. kŒ, kŒyo.
Gen. kŒya, kassŒ. kŒsa, kasŒna.
Dat. kŒya, kassŒ. kŒsa, kasŒna.
Acc. ka. kŒ, kŒyo.
Ins. kŒya. kŒhi, kŒbhi.
Abl. kŒya. kŒhi, kŒbhi.
Loc. kŒya, kassŒ, kŒya, kassa. kŒsu.

318. Neuter: ki, what?

  Singular Plural
Nom. ki. kŒni.
Gen. kissa, kassa. kesa, kesŒna.
Dat. kissa, kassa. kesa, kesŒna.
Acc. ki. kŒni.
Ins. kena. kehi, kebhi.
Abl. kasmŒ, kamhŒ. kehi, kebhi.
Loc. kasmi, kamhi, kismi, kimhi. kesu.

(a) The base of ko assumes several forms: ka, ku (kud), ki (kid).
(b) kud and kid are used before vowels and in composition.

319. Indefinite Pronouns

320. The Indefinite Pronouns are formed by adding ci (cid), api and cana, to the Interrogative Pronouns.

321. ci, or, before a vowel cid is the suffix most commmonly used to form these pronouns.

322. cana=cana, is also found; both are sometimes shortened to ca.

Declension of Koci, KŒci and Ki–ci

323. Masculine: Koci, any, some, anyone

  Singular Plural
Nom. koci. keci.
Gen. kassaci. kesaci.
Dat. kassaci. kesaci.
Acc. kaci, kici. keci.
Ins. kenaci. kehici.
Abl. kasmŒci. kehici.
Loc. kasmici, kamhici, kismici, kimhici. kesuci.

324. Feminine: KŒci, any, some, anyone

  Singular Plural
Nom. kŒci. kŒci, kŒyoci.
Gen. kŒyaci, kassŒci. kŒsaci.
Dat. kŒyaci, kassŒci. kŒsaci.
Acc. kaci. kŒci, kŒyoci.
Ins. kŒyaci. kŒhici.
Abl. kŒyaci. kŒhici.
Loc. kŒyaci, kŒyaci, kassaci. kŒsuci.

325. Neuter: Kici, any, some, anything

The Neuter is declined like the Masculine, except:

  Singular Plural
Nom. & Acc. kici. kŒnici.

326. By placing na, not, before the Indefinite Pronouns we get the meanings: none, no one, nothing, etc.

327. ci, cana may also be placed after adverbs, to give them an indefinite sense, as:

kuhi, where?   kuhici, kuhicana, anywhere.
kudŒ, when?   kudŒcana, ever, sometimes.
kadŒ, when?   kadŒci, sometimes.

Other Pronouns

328. attŒ, self, own, oneself (154), is very much used as a Reflexive Pronoun; so also are: ŒtumŒ, self, own, etc., which is but another form of attŒ, and very rarely used in Buddhist writings: tuma, having the same meaning, is still less frequent.

329. In composition the bases are: atto, atuma and tuma.

330. saya. oneself, by oneself and sŒma self, both indeclinable, are often used as Reflexive Emphatic Pronouns.

331. attŒ, ŒtumŒ and tuma are properly nouns used pronominally.

332. A few other nouns are thus used pronominally; the following are the most usual.

333. bhava, lord, sir, (166). It is a very respectful term of address, used for the Second Pers. Pronoun; the verb is put in the Third Person.

334. Ayya, lord, master; a Buddhist monk; it is used chiefly in addressing Buddhist monks, and is then often used with bhante (166).

335. Œvuso, friend, brother; is also used as a pronoun sometimes. It is used mostly by senior monks to junior monks, Œvuso is indeclinable.

Pronominal Derivatives

Possessive Pronouns

336. A few Possessive Pronouns are formed from the bases of the first and second Personal Pronouns by means of suffixes: ya and aka, the vowel of the bases being sometimes lengthened before aka.

Base Possessive Pronoun
mad (289, a) madya, mine, my, my own.
mam (289, a) mŒmaka, mamaka, mine, my, my own.
amhad (289, d) amhadiya, ours, our own.
tad (290, a) tadiya, thine, thy, thy own.
tava (Gen.) tŒvaka, thine, thy, thy own.

Œmaka, mamaka, as well as tŒvaka, may be derived from the singular genitive form by the addition of ka.
(b) The above Pronouns are declined like deva, ka
––Œ and rpa.

337. A great number of adjectives and adverbs are derived from pronominal bases by means of suffixes, the principal of which are the following:
(a) di (d
), disa, disaka, risa, tara, tama, ka.
(b) d
Œ, dŒni, tra, tha, thŒ, tha, ti, to, va (vat), rahi, ha, ha, hi, va, va, di.
The former (a) are used to form adjectives, and the latter, (b), adverbs.

The following are the principal derivatives by means of the above suffixes.

338. Adjectives

339. di (d), disa, disaka and risa, express likeness, resemblance; the vowel of the stem being lengthened before them.

Pronominal base Adjective
ma (289, a) mŒd, mŒdisa, mŒrisa, like me, such as I.
ta (290, a) tŒdi, tŒdisa, tŒdisaka, like him, like that, such.
amha (289, d) amhŒdisa, like us.
tumha (290, b) tumhŒdisa, like you.
i (307, a) d, disa, risa, disako, like this, such as this.
e (304) ed, edisa, erisa, like this, such as this.
eta (298, 302) etŒdisa, etŒrisa, such as this or that, such.
ki (318, a, b) kd, kdisa, krisa, like what? of what kind?

340. The suffix dikkha, has the same meaning as disa, etc. It is obtained by assimilation from the Sanskrit dka.

Hence we have also the forms:
Œdikkha = tŒdisa.
dikkha = kdisa,
edikkha = edisa,
dikkha = disa, etc.

341. In edi, edisa, etc., the stem i is strengthened (105), in disa, etc., it is merely lengthened (19).

342. Tara and tama, which are used for the comparison of adjectives (238), are also added to the interogative stem to form Pronominal Adjectives which, in meaning, differ but little from the single stem. Hence we have:
katara, which? what?
katama, which? what?

343. Some adjectives assume a rather anomalous form; such are, for instance: kittaka, tattaka, yattaka, ettaka, etc. A glance will suffice to show that they are formed on pronominal bases: ya, eta, ki, (ka), etc. The difficulty is to account (for most of them) for the double tt. It is obvious these adjectives were formed by adding the adjectival suffix ka to the Adverbial Instrumentive in tŒ (from vat, vant: cf., Sansk. tŒvŒtŒ from tŒvat; yŒvatŒ from yŒvat). The PŒli forms are simply contractions from the Sanskrit forms; as: tŒvatŒ+ka=tŒvatŒka: the loss of medial va being compensated by the doubling of the last tŒ; the Œ being shortened before ka, and the Œ of the first tŒ as well, according to euphonic laws. So that:

kittaka, how much? How many? How great?
ettako, so great, so much, so many.
yattaka, however much; however big or large.
tattaka, as many, as great, as big or large.

But see also such Sansk. forms as: iyattaka (i-yad-ta-ka); kiyattaka (ki-yad-ta-ka).

The form etta=ettaka, may be accounted for by the further dropping of final ka, the adverb etto, thence, is probably a contracted form etato (Abl. of eta); in ettavatŒ=etŒvat, the consonant of the base is doubled.

344. (b) Adverbial Derivatives

Adverbial derivatives from pronominal bases constitute a large and useful class of words.

The principal suffixes used to form these adverbs have been given above (337, b). We will give here a few examples of such formation.

345. dŒ, dŒni, rahi express time.

Pronominal base Adverb
ka (318, a) karahi, kadŒ, when.
i (307, a) idŒni, now; at this time.
ta (290, a) tarahi, tadŒ, tadŒni, then; at that time.
eta (298,302) etarahi, now.

346. to, tra, tha, dha, ha, ha, hi, form adverbs of place. Before a short vowel the t of tha is doubled.

Pronominal base Adverb
ka, ku (318, a) kattha, kutra, kuttha, kaha, kuha, kuhi, where? whither? wherein? in what place?
ya (314, d) yatra, yattha, where, wherein, whither.
ya yato, from what.
e (304) ettha, here, herein.
a (307, a) atra, attha, here.
ta (290, a) tattha, tatra, taha, tahi, there, thither.
ta tato, thence, from that place.
i (307, a) iha, idha, here in this place.
i ito, hence, from this place.
eta (298, 302) etto, through etato (343), hence.

347. thŒ, va, va, tha, ti, form adverbs of manner

Pronominal base Adverb
ta tathŒ, thus, so, like that.
ka katha, how?
i ittha, thus, in this manner.
i iva, like this, as, as it were.
i iti, thus, in this manner.
e eva, eva, so, just so.
ya yathŒ, as, like.

348. Another suffix va, from vat, (=Sansk. vat), forms adverbs of time and cause from the Pronominal bases ta, ya, ki. The final t of vat is dropped according to the phonetic laws obtaining, in PŒli, which do not suffer any consonant to remain at the end of a word, except ; before a vowel however, the final t is revived in the form of a d; as for instance: tŒva; but; tŒvad eva.

Pronominal base Adverb
ya yŒva, until; as long as; in order that.
ta tŒva, so long, still, yet.

Remarks. Final a of the base is lengthened before va (vat), which, as we have seen already, (219), forms adjectives from nouns.

The Abl. sing. suffix tŒ, is also added to such forms as the above.

yŒvatŒ, as far as, because.
ŒvatŒ, so far, to that extent, on that account.

From other pronominal bases we have:

Pronominal base Adverb
eta (298) ettŒvatŒ, to that extent, so far, thus.
ki (318, a) kittŒvatŒ, to what extent? how far?

349. It has been seen that by adding ka to these forms we obtain adjectives of cognate meaning.

350. The suffix di, expressing condition, is found only in yadi, if.

351. The suffix ti, is found in: kati, how many? yati, as many, and tati, so many.

Adjectives Declined Pronominally

353. A few adjectives take the pronominal declension. They are:

katara, which? what?   ubhaya, both.
a––a, other.    
a––atara, one of several, a certain.   pubba, first, former.
para, distant, other.   apara, subsequent, other.
uttara, upper, higher.   dakkhia, right, (not left).
adhara, lower, inferior.   vissa, all.
amuka, so and so, such. (310, c)   asuka, so and so, such.