A Practical Grammar of the PŒli Language
Chapter 8


250. Numerals

The Numerals are as follows:


Cardinals Ordinals
1. eka, one. paŹhama, first.
2. dve, two. dutiya, second.
3. tayo, three. tatiya, third.
4. cattŒro. catuttha, tur“ya.
5. pa–ca. pa–catha, pa–cama.
6. cha. chaŹŹha, chatthama.
7. satta. sattha, sattama.
8. aŹŹha. aŹŹhama.
9. nava. navama.
10. dasa, rasa, lasa, Āasa. dasama.
11. ekŒrasa, ekŒdasa. ekarasama.
12. bŒrasa, dvŒrasa. bŒrasama.
13. tedasa, terasa, telasa. tedasama.
14. catuddasa, cuddasa, coddasa. catuddasama.
15. pa–cadasa, paööarasa, pannarasa. pa–cadasama.
16. soĀasa, sorasa. soĀasama.
17. sattadasa, sattarasa. sattadasama.
18. aŹŹhŒdasa aŹŹhŒrasa. aŹŹhŒdasama.
19. ekčnav“sati, ekčnav“saµ. ekčnav“satima.
20. v“sati, v“saµ. v“satima.
21. ekav“sati, ekav“saµ. ekav“satima.
22. dvŒv“sati. dvŒv“satima.
23. tev“sati. tev“satima.
24. catuv“sati. catuv“satima.
25. pa–cav“sati. pa–cav“satima.
26. chabb“sati. chabb“satima.
27. sattab“sati, sattav“sati. sattab“satima.
28. aŹŹhav“saµ. aŹŹhav“satima.
29. ekčnatiµsati, ekčnatiµsaµ. ekčnatiµsatima.
30. tiµsati, tiµsaµ. tiµsatima.
31. ekatiµsati. ekatiµsatima.
32. dvattiµsati. dvattiµsatima.
40. cattŒl“saµ, cattŒr“saµ. cattŒlisat“ma.
50. pa––Œsa, pa––Œsaµ. pa––Œsama.
60. saŹŹhi. saŹŹhima.
70. sattati. sattatima.
80. as“ti. as“tima.
90. navuti. navutima.
100. sataµ. satama.
200. bŒsataµ, dvŒsataµ. bŒsatama.
1000. sahassaµ. sahassama.
10,000. dasasahassaµ. dasasahassama.
10,000,000 koŹi. koŹima.

252. (I) Cardinals

253. Eka, one, is in the singular very often used in an indefinite sense, meaning: a certain, a; as,

eko nŒviko, a boatman, a certain boatman.
ekŒ kumŒrikŒ, a princess, a certain princess.

In the plural, it means: some, as,
eke purisŒ, some men...
ekŒ mŒnusini, some women...

254. The Cardinals, eka, taya and cattŒro are declined in the plural in the three genders; eka, alone of course, having singular forms.

255. Declension of Eka, One

  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. eko. ekŒ. ekaµ.
Gen. ekassa. ekissŒ, ekissŒya. ekassa.
Dat. ekassa. ekissŒ, ekissŒya. ekassa.
Acc. ekaµ. ekaµ. ekaµ.
Ins. ekena. ekŒya. ekena.
Abl. ekasmŒ, ekamhŒ. ekŒya. ekasmŒ, ekamhŒ.
Loc. ekasmiµ, ekamhi. ekŒya, ekissaµ. ekasmiµ, ekamhi.
Voc. eka. eke. eka.
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. eke. ekŒ, ekŒyo. ekŒni.
Gen. ekesaµ. ekŒsaµ. ekesaµ.
Dat. ekesaµ. ekŒsaµ. ekesaµ.
Acc. eke. ekŒ, ekŒyo. ekŒni.
Ins. ekehi, ekebhi. ekŒhi, ekhŒbhi. ekehi, ekebhi.
Abl. ekehi, ekebhi. ekŒhi, ekhŒbhi. ekehi, ekebhi.
Loc. ekesu. ekŒsu. ekesu.
Voc. eke. ekŒ, ekŒyo. ekŒni.

Remark. The above declension is chiefly pronominal. (See Pronouns, Chapter IX)

256. Declension of Tayo, Three

Plural (No Singular)
  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. tayo. tisso. tiöi.
Gen. tiööaµ, tiööannaµ. tissannaµ, tissaµ. tiööaµ, tiööannaµ.
Dat. tiööaµ, tiööannaµ. tissannaµ, tissaµ. tiööaµ, tiööannaµ.
Acc. tayo. tisso. t“öi.
Ins. t“hi, t“bhi. t“hi, t“bhi. t“hi, t“bhi.
Abl. t“hi, t“bhi. t“hi, t“bhi. t“hi, t“bhi.
Loc. t“su. t“su. t“su.

257. Declension of CattŒro, Caturo, Four

  Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nom. cattŒro, caturo. catasso. cattŒri.
Gen. catunnaµ. catassannaµ, cattassaµ. catunnaµ.
Dat. catunnaµ. catassannaµ, cattassaµ. catunnaµ.
Acc. cattŒro, caturo. catasso. cattŒri.
Ins. catubbhi, catčhi, catčbhi. catubbhi, catčhi, catčbhi. catubbhi, catčhi, catčbhi.
Abl. catubbhi, catčhi, catčbhi. catubbhi, catčhi, catčbhi. catubbhi, catčhi, catčbhi.
Loc. catčsu. catčsu. catčsu.

258. (a) In composition, the base of tayo, is ti, as, tilokahitada, bestowing benefits on the three worlds.
(b) Not seldom, tri also is met with: trikumbhanagaraµ, the "three-Hillock-City" (Rangoon)
(c) The base of cattŒro in composition is catu before a consonant, the consonant being often reduplicated; and catur before a vowel:

catumukho, having four faces.
catuppado, a quadruped.
catuparisaµ, the four assemblies.
caturaŗg“ (catu . r. aŗg“), having four divisions.
caturasso (catu . r. asso), having four corners, quadrangular.

259. The Dual has completely disappeared in PŒli; the only two vestiges that have come down to us being dve or duve, two, and ubho, both. But even in these two words, the student will remark that the inflection of the plural has almost entirely superseded that of the dual.

260. Dve or duve and ubho, are of the three genders, and used in the plural only.

  Dve, Two Ubho, Both
Nom. dve, duve. ubho, ubhe.
Gen. dvinnaµ, duvinnaµ. ubhinnaµ.
Dat. dvinnaµ, duvinnaµ. ubhinnaµ.
Acc. dve, duve. ubho, ubhe.
Ins. dv“hi, dv“bhi. ubhohi, ubhobhi.
ubhehi, ubhebhi.
Abl. dv“hi, dv“bhi. ubhohi, ubhobhi.
ubhehi, ubhebhi.
Loc. dv“su. ubhosu, ubhesu.

261. (a) The base of dve, duve in composition is dvi and also di, du and dve:
dvijo, twice born, a brahmin.
dvijivho, double-tongued, a snake.
dvipo, drinking twice, an elephant.
dipado, two-legged, a biped.
diguöo, two-fold.
duvidho, of two kinds.
čmako, having two stories.
dvepakkho, two factions or parties.

(b) dva, dvΠare also used as the bases of dve, but chiefly in composition with other numbers:
dvattikkhatuµ (dva-ti-khattuµ), two or three times.
dvatiµsati, thirty two.
dvŒsaŹŹhi, sixty-two.
dvŒv“sati, twenty-two.

(c) bΠis similarly used as a base.
bŒrasa, bŒdasa, twelve.
bŒv“sati, twenty-two.

262. Pa–ca, five, is, like dve, of the three genders. It is declined as follows:
Nom. pa–ca.
Gen. pa–cannaµ.
Dat. pa–cannaµ.
Acc. pa–ca.
Ins. pa–cahi.
Abl. pa–cahi.
Loc. pa–casu.

263. The other numbers up to 18 included, are also of the three genders, and are declined as follows:

Nom., Acc. & Voc. Gen. & Dat. Ins. & Abl. Loc.
six, cha.
seven, satta.
eight, aŹŹha.
nine, nava.
ten, dasa.

264. The numerals from 11 to 18 are declined in exactly the same way.

265. Here it must be observed that 10 has three forms: dasa, rasa, lasa, the last two being used only in composition with other numerals; Āasa is also found.

266. The numerals from 19 to 99 are Feminine; as they are formed by prefixing the numerals from 1 to 9 to the decades, the decades are here given separately.

20, v“sati, v“sa. 50, pa––Œsa, paööŒsa.
30, tiµsati, tiµsa. 60, saŹŹhi.
40, cattŒl“sa, cattŒlisa 70, sattati.
  cattŒrisa, 80, asiti.
  tŒlisa, tŒlisa. 90, navuti.

267. The numerals ending in i are declined like the Feminines in i (jŒti, ratti).

268. Those in a take in the Nom. sometimes the form in Œ, like ka––Œ, but usually they assume in the Nom. Neuter form in aµ.

269. The following will serve as a model for the declension of numerals from 20 to 99:

Declension of V“sati, 20

Nom. & Voc. Acc. Gen. & Dat. Ins. & Abl. Loc.
1st form: v“saµ, v“sa. visaµ. visŒya. visŒya. visŒya, visŒyaµ.
2nd form: v“sati. v“satiµ. visatiyŒ. visatiyŒ. visatiyŒ, visatiyaµ.

Remark. Numerals in i follow the 2nd form and those in a the 1st form.

270. To express full decades but one, as 19, 29, 39, etc: ekčna (eka, one + čna, deficient by) is prefixed to the decades, as:

ekčnav“sati, 19, viz., 20 deficient by one.
čnatiµsa, 29 viz. 30 deficient by one, etc.

271. The very high numerals as, koŹi, ten millions, pakoŹi, one hundred billions, etc., are declined like v“sati.

272. Sataµ 100, sahassaµ 1000, lakhaµ l00,000, are Neuter substantives, and therefore declined as such on the model of rčpaµ (124).

273. (II) Ordinals

274. The Ordinals are formed from the Cardinals, from 5 upwards, by means of the suffix ma:

Cardinal Ordinal
5, pa–ca, pa–cama 5th.
6, cha, chama, 6th.
7, satta, sattama, 7th.
8, aŹŹha, aŹŹhama, 8th, etc.

275. Ordinals 5th, 6th and 7th, have two forms:

5th, pa–catha, pa–cama.
6th, chaŹŹha, chaŹŹhama.
7th, satta, sattama.

276. From 5 upwards, the Ordinals form their Feminine by means of suffix “ (181, 2) and their Neuter is formed in aµ. They are therefore declined like devo, nad“ and rčpaµ.

Masc. Nom. Fem. Nom. Neut. Nom.
pa–camo pa–cam“ pa–camaµ
chaŹŹhamo chaŹŹham“ chaŹŹhamaµ
sattamo sattam“ sattamaµ
aŹŹhamo aŹŹham“ aŹŹhamaµ, etc.

277. From 11 upwards, however, the Cardinals themselves are not seldom used as Ordinals; so that we have the choice of two forms, and can say either,

ekŒrasa, 11th, or ekŒrasama, 11th.
pa–cadasa, 15th, or pa–cadasama, 15th.
catuv“sati 24th, or catuv“satima, 24th, etc.

278. The first four Ordinals are as follows:

Masc. Nom. Fem. Nom. Neut. Nom.
paŹhamo paŹhamŒ paŹhamaµ
dutiyo dutiyŒ dutiyaµ
tatiyo tatiyŒ tatiyaµ
catuttho catutthŒ catutthaµ

Remark. They are consequently declined like deva, ka––Œ and rčpaµ.

279. (III) Adverbial Derivatives from Numerals

280. Many important adverbs are derived from numerals by means of some suffixes.

281. By means of suffix dhΠare formed adverbs signifying: ways, times, fold and sometimes kinds.

ekadhŒ, once.
dvidhŒ, in two ways; in two; of two kinds.
tidhŒ, in three ways; three-fold, in three parts.

282. The word guöa, though not a suffix, is often employed like dhŒ with the meanings of times, fold. In the sense of times, it generally takes the Neuter form in aµ.

dasaguöaµ, ten times; or ten-fold.
tiguöaµ, three times; or three-fold.
catuguöaµ, four times; or, four-fold.

Remark. In the sense of fold, the compound being an adjective, is treated as such and is declined like deva, ka––Œ and rčpaµ.

283. dhΠis also used in the same way after a few adjectives:
bahudhŒ, in many ways.
anekadhŒ, in more than one way.

284. Distributive adverbs are formed from numerals by means of suffix so (Sansk. •as).

ekaso, one by one.
pa–caso, five by five.

285. From khattuµ, multiplicative adverbs are formed.

dvikkhattuµ, twice.
sattakkhattuµ, seven times.
satasahassakkhattuµ, one hundred thousand times.

286. The two following suffixes, from substantives and adjectives ka and ya, form collective nouns and adjectives.

catukka, four-fold, consisting of four, a collection of four things; a place where four roads meet.
dvaya, of two sorts, consisting of two a pair.
dvika, duka, consisting of two, a pair.
tika, taya, tayi, consisting of three, a triad, etc.

287. There is an adverb, meaning once, at once, never used in composition with numerals, it is sakiµ, (Sansk, sakØt). When used before words beginning with a vowel it sometimes takes the forms sakid or sakad.

sakiµ passanto, seeing (him) once.
sakiµ yeva, at once, simultaneously.
sakid eva, at once, simultaneously.
sakadŒgam“ (Œgami), returning once only.