A Practical Grammar of the PŒli Language
Chapter 5


116. (a) Declension is the adding to the stems of Nouns and Adjectives certain suffixes which show, case, gender and number.
(b) The stem or base of a noun is that noun as it stands before any suffix has been added to it.
(c) PŒli has three genders: the Masculine, the Feminine and the Neuter.
(d) PŒli does not strictly follow the natural division of male, female, etc, in assigning gender to nouns, many nouns which are Masculine in English are Feminine or Neuter in PŒli and vice-versa; a great number of nouns which we consider as neuter are, some Masculine, some Feminine in PŒli. This is called grammatical gender.
(e) There are two numbers: the singular and the plural.
(f) There are eight cases.

1. Nominative, showing the subject of the sentence.
2. Genitive, showing possession (of 's).
3. Dative, showing the object or person to or for whom something is given or done.
4. Accusative, this is the object of the sentence.
5. Instrumentive, shows the object or person with or by whom something is performed.
6. Ablative, generally showing separation, expressed by from.
7. Locative, showing place (in, on, at, upon, etc.).
8. Vocative, used in addressing persons.

Remarks. The student will find fuller explanations of the uses of the cases in the chapter on Syntax.

117. The declension of nouns is divided into two great divisions:
(a) Vowel-declension, comprising all the stems that end in a vowel.
(b) Consonantal, declension, in which are included all the stems ending in a consonant.
(c) Vowel-declension is generally, for the sake of clearness, divided again into three classes:
(i) the declension of stems ending in a or Œ.
(ii) the declension of stems ending in i or ´.
(iii) the declension of stems ending in u or è.

118. (a) Native grammarians give the following as the regular case endings or suffixes for all nouns.

Singular Plural
Nom. s Nom. yo
Gen. ssa Gen. naµ
Dat. ssa Dat. naµ
Acc. aµ Acc. yo
Ins. ΠIns. hi
Abl. smΠAbl. hi
Loc. smiµ Loc. su
Voc. (like the stem of Nom.) Voc. (like the Nom.)

(b) Most of the above suffixes are theoretical only, in practice they differ considerably according to gender and case.

The actual suffixes will be given with each declension.

Vowel Declension

Declension of stems ending in a (short)

119. (a) The great bulk of nouns and adjectives belong to this declension, and as the other declensions have borrowed several of its suffixes, its thorough mastery is most important and will greatly facilitate the study of the other declensions.
(b) Nouns ending in a, are all masculine or neuter.

120. The following are the suffixes of masculine nouns the stem of which ends in a:

Singular Plural
Nom. o Nom. Œ, Œse
Gen. ssa Gen. naµ
Dat. ssa, Œya Dat. naµ
Acc. µ Acc. e
Ins. ina Ins. ehi, ebhi
Abl. Œ, smŒ, mhŒ, to Abl. ehi, ebhi
Loc. i, smiµ, mhi Loc. su
Voc. (like the stem) and ΠVoc. a

121. These suffixes have to be attached to the stems, taking care to observe the sandhi rules which may apply when suffixes begin with a vowel; in every case the student should accustom himself to look up the rules, which will be referred to by their numbers, and accustom himself to account for every form he meets with, whether nominal, verbal or derivative. He should remember that a systematic study from the start will ensure thoroughness and eventually save him a great deal of labour and time.

122. Declension of Deva, God, Angel

Singular Plural
Nom. devo, a god devŒ, gods
Gen. devassa, a god's devŒnaµ, gods', of gods
Dat. devassa, to or for a god devŒnaµ, to or for gods
Acc. devaµ, a god deve, gods
Ins. devena, by, with or on account of, a god. devehi, devebhi, by, with, or on account, of gods
Abl. devŒ, from a god
devasmŒ, from a god
devamhŒ, from a god
devato, from a god
devehi, devebhi, from gods
Loc deve, in, on, or upon a god
devasmiµ on, or upon a god
devamhi on, or upon, a god
devesu, in on, or upon gods
Voc. deva, devŒ, O god! devŒ, O gods!


Decline like deva (masc.):
nara, man. mŒtaşga, elephant.
byaggha, tiger. s´ha, lion.
miga, deer. orodha, a seraglio.
gandhabba, musician. dhamma, doctrine, right.
kacchapa, tortoise. putta, son.
satta, being. kèpa, a mast.
suµsumŒra, crocodile. makara, a sea monster.

(a) The true Dat. sing. in Œya has now generally been displaced by the suffix of the gen. ssa; the Dat. Œya is almost equal to an lnfinitive and mostly denotes intention.
(b) smŒ and mhŒ of the Abl. and smiµ and mhi of the Loc. have been borrowed from the pronominal declension (see Declension of Pronouns).
(c) so is sometimes used also as an Abl. sing. suffix:
vaggaso, by groups, bhŒgaso, by share.
(d) sŒ is also found as an Ins. sing. suffix, as: balasŒ, by force, forcibly, talasŒ, with the sole of the foot.
(e) The Nom. plur. in Œse, very scarce, corresponds to the Vedic Nom. plur.
(f) ebhi, of the Ins. and Abl. plural, is mostly used in poetry, and probably comes from the Vedic -ebhis.
(g) Before o, Nom. sing., ehi, ebhi, Ins. and Abl. plur. and e, Acc. plur. final a of the stem is dropped:
deva + o = dev + o = devo, deva + ehi = dev + ehi = devehi.
(h) Before su, Loc. plur. final a of stem is changed to e
(i) In the Dat., Ins., Abl. and Loc. sing.; and in Nom. and Voc. plur. the usual rules of sandhi are regularly followed:

Instrumentive deva + ina = devena (21-i)
Dative deva + Œya = devŒya (22)
Loc. deva + i = deve (21-i)
Abl. deva + Π= devΠ(22)
Nom. deva + a = devΠ(ibid)
  deva + Œse = devŒse (ibid)
Voc. devΠ+ a = devΠ(ibid)

(j) Before naµ, Gen. and Dat. plur., final a of the stem is lengthened.
deva + naµ = devŒ + naµ = devŒnaµ.

123. Neuter nouns in a (short)

Singular Plural
Nom. µ ni, a
Gen. ssa naµ
Dat. ssa, Œya naµ
Acc. µ ni, e
Ins. ina ehi, ebhi
Abl. Œ, smŒ, mhŒ, to ehi, ebhi
Loc. i, smiµ, mhi su
Voc. (like the stem) ni, a

124. Declension of Rèpa (Neuter), Form

Singular Plural
Nom. rèpaµ rèpŒni, rè
Gen. rèpassa rèpŒnaµ
Dat. rèpassa, rèpŒya rèpŒnaµ
Acc. rèpaµ rèpŒni, rèpe
Ins. rèpena rèpehi, rèpebhi
Abl. rupŒ, rèpasmŒ, rèpamhŒ, rèpato rèpehi, rèpebhi
Loc. rèpe, rèpasmiµ, rèpamhi rèpesu
Voc. rèpa rèpŒni, rè

(a) ni is essentially the distinctive sign of Neuter nouns in the Nom., Acc., and Voc. plur. in all declensions.
(b) The final vowel of the stem is lengthened before ni.


Decline like rèpa:
citta, mind. sota, ear.
èla, root, price. veÂuriya, coral.
upaÊÊhŒna, service. ahata, cloth (new).
jala, water. osŒna, end.
loöa, salt. savana, hearing.
vajira, diamond. sŒÊaka, garment.
vŒta, wind. pesana, despatch, sending.
yotta, rope. paÊÊana, a sea port.
yuddha, fight. paööa, leaf.

(a) It will be noticed that neuter nouns in a differ from the masculine in a, in the Nom. sing. and in the Nom. Acc. and Voc. plur.; all the other cases are identical.
(b) In the plur. the Nom., Acc. and Voc. have the same form.
(c) The form in Œni, of the Nom., Acc. and Voc. plur. is the most common.

125. Declension of nouns in Π(long)

All nouns ending in Πare Feminine.

126. Suffixes

Singular Plural
Nom. - Œ, yo
Gen. Œya naµ
Dat. Œya naµ
Acc. µ Œ, yo
Ins. Œya hi, bhi
Abl. Œya, to hi, bhi
Loc. Œyaµ, Œya su
Voc. e Œ, yo

127. Declension of Ka––Œ (Fem.), a Virgin

Singular Plural
Nom. ka––Œ ka––Œ, ka––Œyo
Gen. ka––Œya ka––Œnaµ
Dat. ka––Œya ka––Œnaµ
Acc. ka––aµ ka––Œ, ka––Œyo
Ins. ka––Œya ka––Œhi, ka––Œbhi
Abl. ka––Œya, ka––ato ka––Œhi, ka––Œbhi
Loc. ka––Œyaµ, ka––Œya ka––Œsu
Voc. ka––Œ, ka––e ka––Œ, ka––Œyo

(a) Before to of the Abl. sing. the final vowel, if long, is shortened. So also before µ of Acc. sing.
(b) The following words all meaning mother have two forms in the Voc. sing:

  ammŒ ambŒ annŒ tŒtŒ
Voc. Sing. ammŒ ambŒ annŒ tŒtŒ
  amma amba anna tŒta

(c) In the Acc. sing. final Πis shortened.


Decline like ka––Œ:
saddhŒ, faith. medhŒ, intelligence.
vijjŒ, science. pa––Œ, wisdom.
taöhŒ, lust, thirst. mettŒ, love.
icchŒ, desire. bhikkhŒ, begged-food,
gŒthŒ, stanza, mŒlŒ, garland.
khiĥĥŒ, play, sport. p
èjŒ, honour.
senŒ, army. chŒyŒ, shadow
nŒvŒ, boat. pipŒsŒ, thirst.
g´vŒ, throat. velŒ, time.

128. It has been said above (125) that all nouns ending in Œ are feminine; but there are a very few examples of masculine nouns ending in Œ. We give below their declension.

Masculine nouns in Π(long)
Declension of SΠ(Dog)
Singular Plural
Nom. sŒ
Gen. sassa sŒnaµ
Dat. sassa, sŒya sŒnaµ
Acc. saµ sŒne
Ins. sena sŒhi, sŒbhi
Abl. sŒ, sasmŒ, samhŒ sŒhi, sŒbhi
Loc. se, sasmiµ, samhi sŒsu
Voc. sa

(a) the declension above given is according to r
èpasiddhi grammar book.
(b) The declension given in the Saddaniti differs slightly:

Singular Plural
Nom. sŒ sŒ, sŒno
Gen. sassa sŒnaµ
Dat. sassa sŒnaµ
Acc. sŒnaµ sŒne
Ins. sŒnŒ sŒnehi, sŒnebhi
Abl. sŒnŒ sŒnehi, sŒnebhi
Loc. sŒne sŒnesu
Voc. sa sŒ, sŒno

The following are declined like sŒ:
paccakkhadhammŒ, one to whom the Doctrine is evident.
gaöĥ´vandhavŒ, Arjuna.
mŒ, the moon.
*, sin.
*niruttid´pan´, a scholium on moggallŒnavyŒkaraöa, a grammar held in high esteem in Ceylon and Burma.

Remarks. Masculine nouns in Πbelong to the Consonantal declension, but native grammarians, consider them as stems ending in a vowel.

129. Declension of nouns in i (short)

Nouns the stem of which ends in i are Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. They do not form a very numerous class.

130. Masc. nouns in i (suffixes)

Singular Plural
Nom. - ´, yo
Gen. ssa, no naµ
Dat. ssa, no naµ
Acc. µ ´, yo
Ins. nΠhi, bhi
Abl. nŒ, smŒ, mhŒ hi, bhi
Loc. smiµ, mhi su
Voc. - ´, yo

131. Declension of Kapi (Masc.), Monkey

Singular Plural
Nom. kapi kap´, kapayo
Gen. kapissa, kapino kap´naµ
Dat. kapissa, kapino kap´naµ
Acc. kapiµ kap´, kapayo
Ins. kapinŒ kap´hi, kap´bhi
Abl. kapinŒ, kapismŒ, kapimhŒ kap´hi, kap´bhi
Loc. kapismiµ, kapimhi kap´su
Voc. kapi kap´, kapayo

(a) The Nom. and Voc. sing. are like the stem.
(b) In the Nom., Acc. and Voc. plur., final i is changed to a before suffix yo.
(c) However final i is sometimes preserved before yo, so that we also have the form kapiyo (rare).
(d) In the plural, before suffixes: naµ, hi, bhi, su, final i is lengthened.
(e) Some rare and old forms are sometimes found:
(i) Gen. sing. ending in -e, as: mune.
(ii) Loc. sing. ending in -o, as: Œdo, and also
(iii) Loc. sing. ending in -e, as: gire.
(iv) Ins. sing. ending in -ena, as: raµsena.
(v) Nom. plur. ending in -no, as: saramatino.
(f) Not seldom, the stem itself is used for almost all the cases in the singular.


Words declined like kapi (masc.):
aggi, fire. kali, sin.
sandhi, union. nidhi, a depository.
sŒrathi, a charioteer. yati, a monk
a–jali, salutation. ari, an enemy.
bondi, body. giri, a mountain.
èmi, a wave. bali, oblation.
senŒpati, a general. gahapati, householder.

Feminine nouns in i (short)

132. Suffixes

Singular Plural
Nom. - ´, yo
Gen. Œ naµ
Dat. Œ naµ
Acc. µ ´, yo
Abl. Πhi, bhi
Ins. Πhi, bhi
Loc. Œ, aµ su
Voc. - ´, yo

133. (a) Declension of Ratti (Fem.), Night

Singular Plural
Nom. ratti ratt´, rattiyo, ratyo
Gen. rattiyŒ, ratyŒ ratt´naµ
Dat. rattiyŒ, ratyŒ ratt´naµ
Acc. rattiµ ratt´, rattiyo, ratyo
Ins. rattiyŒ, ratyŒ ratt´hi, ratt´bhi
Abl. rattiyŒ, ratyŒ ratt´hi, ratt´bhi
Loc. ratiyŒ, ratyŒ, rattiyaµ, ratyaµ ratt´su
Voc. ratti ratt´, rattiyo, ratyo

(a) There is an ancient Loc. sing. in o: ratto.
(b) An Abl. sing. in to, is also found: rattito.
(c) In the Gen., Dat., Ins., Abl. and Loc. sing. a y is inserted between the stem and the suffix Œ to avoid a hiatus, (See 27(ii) Remark 2); so also in the Loc. sing. before aµ.
(d) Before Œ, of the same cases, final i of the stem may become y by rule 27(i)-a; and as in PŒli there can be no group of three consonants
* one t is dropped. Hence we get: ratti + Œ = rattyŒ = ratyŒ.
*Except ntr, as in antra, etc.
(e) Before suffixes, naµ, hi, bhi, su of the plural, the i of the stem is lengthened.

(b) Declension of JŒti (Fem.), Birth

Singular Plural
Nom. jŒti jŒt´, jŒtiyo, jatyo, jacco
Gen. jŒtiyŒ, jatyŒ, jaccŒ jŒt´naµ
Dat. jŒtiyŒ, jatyŒ, jaccŒ jŒt´naµ
Acc. jatiµ jŒt´, jŒtiyo, jatyo, jacco
Ins. jŒtiyŒ, jatyŒ, jaccŒ jŒt´hi, jŒt´bhi
Abl. jŒtiyŒ, jatyŒ, jaccŒ jŒt´hi, jŒt´bhi
Loc. jŒtiyŒ, jatyŒ, jaccŒ, jŒtiyaµ, jatyaµ, jaccaµ jŒt´su
Voc. jŒti jŒt´, jŒtiyo, jatyo, jacco

(a) For the forms, jaccŒ and jaccaµ see rule (74).
(b) Jacco is obtained by the assimilation of y after the elision of final i. (71, 74).
(c) It will be remarked that, whereas in Masc. nouns in i the i of the stem is changed to a before yo, in Fem. nouns it is retained.


Nouns declined like ratti (fem).
èmi, earth. keÂi, amusement.
satti, ability. nandi, joy.
patti, attainment. mati, understanding.
tuÊÊhi, satisfaction. mutti, deliverance.
Œsatti, attachment. vuddhi, increase.
èli. dust. ruci, splendour.
tanti, a string. chavi, the skin.
gati, going, rebirth. cuti, disappearance.
sati, recollection. diÊÊhi, sight, belief.

Neuter nouns in i (short)

134. Suffixes

Singular Plural
Nom. - ni, ´
Gen. ssa, no naµ
Dat. ssa, no naµ
Acc. µ ni, ´
Ins. nΠhi, bhi
Abl. nŒ, smŒ, mhŒ hi, bhi
Loc. smiµ, mhi su
Voc. - n´, ´
Declension of VŒri (Neut.), Water
Singular Plural
Nom. vŒri vŒr´ni, vŒr´
Gen. vŒrissa, vŒrino vŒrinaµ
Dat. vŒrissa, vŒrino vŒrinaµ
Acc. vŒriµ vŒr´ni, vŒr´
Ins. vŒrinŒ vŒr´hi, vŒr´bhi
Abl. vŒrinŒ, vŒrismŒ, vŒrimhŒ vŒr´hi, vŒr´bhi
Loc. vŒrismiµ, vŒrimhi vŒr´su
Voc. vŒri vŒrini, vŒr´

(a) There is also found a Nom. sing. in µ like the Acc., as, aÊÊhiµ, bone, akkhiµ, eye, etc.
(b) As usual, final i is lengthened before ni, naµ, hi, bhi and su in the plural.


Decline like vŒri (neut):
aÊÊhi, bone. satthi, the thigh.
akkhi, eye. dadhi, milk curds.
sappi, ghee. acchi, eye.
chadi, roof. r
èpi, silver.

135. Declensions of nouns in ´ (Iong)

There are no Neuter nouns ending in ´ (long).

Masculine nouns in ´ (long)

136. Suffixes

Singular Plural
Nom. ´ ´, no
Gen. ssa, no naµ
Dat. ssa, no naµ
Acc. µ, naµ ´, no
Ins. nΠhi, bhi
Abl. nŒ, smŒ, mhŒ hi, bhi
Loc. smiµ, mhi su
Voc. ´ ´, no
Declension of Daöĥ´ (Masc.), Mendicant
Singular Plural
Nom. daöĥ´ daöĥ´, daöĥino
Gen. daöĥissa, daöĥino daöĥinaµ
Dat. daöĥissa, daöĥino daöĥinaµ
Acc. daöĥiµ, daöĥinaµ daöĥ´, daöĥino
Ins. daöĥinŒ daöĥ´hi, daöĥ´bhi
Abl. dandinŒ, daöĥismŒ daöĥ´hi, daöĥ´bhi
Loc. daöĥismiµ, daöĥimhi daöĥ´su
Voc. daöĥ´ daöĥ´, daöĥino

(a) A Nom sing. in i (Short) is sometimes met with: daöĥi.
(b) Voc. sing. in ni is also found: daöĥini.
(c) Note that in all the oblique cases of the singular the final i of the stem is shortened before the suffixes.
(d) In the Nom. plur. a rare form in yo is found formed on the analogy of Masc. in i (short); as daöĥiyo.
(e) An Acc. plur. in ye is occasionally met with: daöĥiye.
(f) It should be noticed that before no of the Nom. Acc. and Voc. plur. ´ of the base is shortened.
(g) An Acc. sing. in aµ with the semi-vowel y developed before it is met with: daöĥiyaµ.
(h) An Abl. sing. in to is found pretty frequently daöĥito.


Decline like daöĥ´ (Masc):
sŒm´, lord. senŒn´, a general.
kapaö´, pauper. sakkh´, a witness.
mant´, minister. yoddh´, warrior.

137. Most Masc. nouns in ´ are not pure substantives, they are adjectives used substantively; their true stem is in in, the Nom. sing. being ´. The true stem of daöĥ´ therefore is daöĥin. Properly, all these words belong to the consonantal declension.

Feminine nouns ´ (long)

138. Suffixes

Singular Plural
Nom. ´ ´, yo
Gen. Œ naµ
Dat. Œ naµ
Acc. µ ´, yo
Ins. Πhi, bhi
Abl. Πhi, bhi
Loc. a, aµ su
Voc. ´ ´, yo

139. Declension of Nad´ (Fem.), River

Singular Plural
Nom. nad´ nad´, nadiyo, najjo
Gen. nadiyŒ, nadyŒ, najjŒ nadinaµ
Dat. nadiyŒ, nadyŒ, najjŒ nadinaµ
Acc. nadiµ nad´, nadiyo, najjo
Ins. nadiyŒ, nadyŒ, najjŒ nad´hi, nad´bhi
Abl. nadiyŒ, nadyŒ, najjŒ nad´hi, nad´bhi
Loc. nadiyŒ, nadyŒ, najjŒ, nadiyaµ, nadyaµ, najjaµ nad´su
Voc. nad´ nad´, nadiyo, najjo

(a) There is a Gen. plur. in Œnaµ, nadiyŒnaµ.
(b) In all the oblique cases of the sing, final ´ of the base is shortened; also before yo in the plural.
(c) For insertion of y before suffixes beginning with a vowel, see 27, Remark 2.
(d) For the forms nadyŒ, najjŒ, and najjaµ see Rules 71, 74.
(4) In the form najjo, yo is assimilated after the elision of final i.


Decline like nad´ (Fem.):
paÊ´, canvas. BŒrŒöas´, Benares.
lakkh´, prosperity. rŒjin´, queen.
s´h´, lioness. dabb´, spoon.
pŒt´, bowl. bhis´, mat
kumŒr´, girl. sakh´, a female friend.
brŒhmaö´, a brahmin woman. taruö´, young woman
bhikkhun´, nun. kŒk´, a female crow.
vŒnar´, ape. mah´, the earth.
yakkh´, ogress. mig´, a doe.
dev´, nymph. vŒp´, a reservoir, tank.

Delension of nouns in u (short)

140. The nouns ending in u (short), are either Masculine, Feminine or Neuter.

Masculine nouns in u (short)

141. Suffixes

Singular Plural
Nom. - è, o
Gen. ssa, no naµ
Dat. ssa, no naµ
Acc. µ è, o
Ins. nΠhi, bhi
Abl. nŒ, smŒ, mhŒ hi, bhi
Loc. smiµ, mhi su
Voc. - è, o, e
Declension of Bhikkhu (Masc.), Monk
Singular Plural
Nom. bhikkhu bhikkhè, bhikkhavo
Gen. bhikkhussa, bhikkhuno bhikkhènaµ
Dat. bhikkhussa, bhikkhuno bhikkhènaµ
Acc. bhikkhuµ bhikkhè, bhikkhavo
Ins. bhikkhunŒ bhikkhèhi, bhikkhèbhi
Abl. bhikkhunŒ, bhiskhusmŒ, bhikkhumhŒ bhikkhèhi, bhikkhèbhi
Loc. bhikkhumhi, bhikkhusmiµ bhikkhèsu
Voc. bhikkhu bhikkhè, bhikkhavo, bhikkhave

(a) In a Nom. and an Acc. plural, yo are sometimes met with in some words: jantuyo, hetuyo.
(b) Before suffixes o and e, in the plural u of the stem or base is strengthened and becomes av. (27(ii)-a)


Nouns declined like bhikkhu (Masc.):
pasu, goat. velu, bamboo.
bandhu, relative. bhΚu, the sun.
maccu, death. ucchu, sugar-cane.
bŒhu, arm. setu, bridge.
ketu, flag. katu, sacrifice.
pharasu, axe. ruru, a deer.
taru, tree. hetu, cause.

Feminine nouns in u (Short)

142. Suffixes

Singular Plural
Nom. - è, yo
Gen. yŒ naµ
Dat. yŒ naµ
Acc. m è, yo
Ins. yΠhi, bhi
Abl. yΠhi, bhi
Loc. yaµ, yŒ su
Voc. - è, yo

143. Declension of Dhenu (Fem.), Cow

Singular Plural
Nom. dhenu dhenè, dhenuyo
Gen. dhenuyŒ dhenènaµ
Dat. dhenuyŒ dhenènaµ
Acc. dhenuµ dhenè, dhenuyo
Ins. dhenuyŒ dhenèhi, dhenèbhi
Abl. dhenuyŒ dhenèhi, dhenèbhi
Loc. dhenuyaµ, dhenuyŒ dhenèsu
Voc. dhenè dhenuyo

(a) An Abl. sing. in to is common: dhenuto, jambuto.
(b) A Nom. plur. in o occurs without strengthening of final u but with insertion of v: dhen
(c) Final u is, in the plural, lengthened before naµ, hi, bhi and su.


Decline like dhenu:
dhŒtu, an element. yŒgu, rice gruel.
rajju, string. kareöu, elephant.
ku, the earth. hanu, jaw.
daddu, ringworm. vaööu, sand.
kŒsu, a hole, pit. kaöĥu, itch.
kacchu, scab. piyaşgu, a medicinal plant.
natthu, nose. vijju, lightning.

Neuter nouns in u (short)

144. Suffixes

Singular Plural
(Like the Masculine) Nom. Acc. Voc. è, ni
  (The rest like the Masc.)

145. Declension of Cakkhu (Neut.), Eye

Singular Plural
Nom. cakkhu cakkhèni, cakkhè
Gen. cakkhussa, cakkhuno cakkhuno, cakkhènaµ
Dat. cakkhussa, cakkhuno cakkhènaµ
Acc. cakkhuµ cakkhèni, cakkhè
Ins. cakkhunŒ cakkhèhi, cakkhèbhi
Abl. cakkhunŒ, cakkhusmŒ, cakkhumhŒ cakkhèhi, cakkhèbhi
Loc. cakkhusmiµ, cakkhumhi cakkhèsu
Voc. cakkhu cakkhèni, cakkhè

Remarks. There is a form of the Nom. sing. in µ cakkhuµ.


Words declined like cakkhu (Neut.):
dhanu, a bow. ambu, water.
dŒru, wood. aru, a wound.
madhu, honey. janu, the knee.
massu, the beard. vatthu, a story.
matthu, whey. Œyu, age.
assu, a tear. vasu, wealth.

146. Declension of Nouns è (long)
(a) This declension includes Masculine and Feminine nouns only.
(b) The suffixes are much the same as those of the u (short) declension, and present no difficulty.

147. Declension of Sayambhè (Masc.), an Epithet of the Buddha

Singular Plural
Nom. sayambhè sayambhè, sayambhuvo
Gen. sayambhussa, sayambhuno sayambhènaµ
Dat. sayambhussa, sayambhuno sayambhènaµ
Acc. sayambhuµ sayambhè, sayambhuvo
Ins. sayambhunŒ sayambhèhi, sayambhèbhi
Abl. sayambhunŒ, sayambhusmŒ, sayambhumhŒ sayambhèhi, sayambhèbhi
Loc. sayambhusmiµ, sayambhumhi sayambhè
Voc. sayambhè sayambhè, sayambhuvo

(a) In the Nom., Acc. and Voc. Plur., v is inserted between the suffix o and the stem after the shortening of
(b) Final
è of the stem is shortened to u in the oblique cases of the singular.

148. Declension of Vadhè (Fem.), a Widow

Singular Plural
Nom. vadhè vadhè, vadhuyo
Gen. vadhuyŒ vadhènaµ
Dat. vadhuyŒ vadhènaµ
Acc. vadhuµ vadhè, vadhuyo
Ins. vadhuyŒ vadhèhi, vadhèbhi
Abl. vadhuyŒ vadhèhi, vadhèbhi
Loc. vadhuyŒ, vadhuyaµ vadhèsu
Voc. vadhè vadhè, vadhuyo

(a) As in the Masc., final
è is shortened in the oblique cases of the sing.
(b) A form in to is also found in the Abl. sing., vadhuto.
(c) In the plural, before yo, final
è is shortened.

149. Stems ending in a diphthong

All diphthongic stems have disappeared in PŒli; only one such stem remains, it is the word go, a cow.

Special Nouns

150. (I) Declension of Go (Diphthongic Stem), a Cow

Singular Plural
Nom. go gavo, gŒvo
Gen. gavassa, gŒvassa gavaµ, gonaµ, gunnaµ
Dat. gavassa, gŒvassa gavaµ, gonaµ, gunnaµ
Acc. gavaµ, gŒvaµ, gavuµ, gŒvuµ gavo, gŒvo
Ins. gavena, gŒvena gohi, gobhi, gavehi
Abl. gavŒ, gŒvŒ, gavasmŒ, gŒvasmŒ, gavamhŒ, gŒvamhŒ gohi, gobhi, gavehi
Loc. gave, gŒve, gavasmiµ, gŒvasmiµ, gavamhi, gŒvamhi gosu, gavesu, gŒvesu
Voc. go gavo, gŒvo

151. (II) Declension of SakhŒ, a Friend
(Sansk. sakhi. The stem is irregular. Masc.)

Singular Plural
Nom. sakhŒ sakhŒyo, sakhŒno, sakhino, sakhŒ
Gen. sakhino, sakhissa sakhŒrŒnaµ, sakh´naµ, sakhŒnaµ
Dat. sakhino, sakhissa sakhŒrŒnaµ, sakh´naµ, sakhŒnaµ
Acc. sakhŒnaµ, sakhaµ, sakhŒraµ sakh´, sakhŒyo, sakhŒno, sakhino
lns. sakhinŒ sakhŒrehi, sakhŒrebhi, sakhehi, sakhebhi
Abl. sakhinŒ, sakhŒrŒ, sakharasmŒ sakhŒrehi, sakhŒrebhi, sakhehi, sakhebhi
Loc. sakhŒrasmiµ, sakhŒrimhi sakhŒresu, sakhesu
Voc. sakha, sakhŒ, sakhi, sakh´, sakhe sakhŒyo, sakhŒno, sakhino, sakhŒ

Remarks. The student will perceive that sakhΠhas forms belonging to stems in ar and others to stems in in. (See: Consonantal Declension.)

152. Consonantal Declension

(a) The Consonantal Declension includes all nouns and adjectives whose stem ends in a consonant.
(b) Nouns the stem of which ends in a consonant, are rather few and special, the majority of the words included in this declension being adjectives ending in vat or mat, and all words ending in a nasal (n) being considered as belonging to the Vowel Declension, by native grammarians.
(c) Most of the words of the Consonantal Declension seem to follow two declensions; some suffixes belong to the vowel, and others to the Consonantal Declension.

153. (I) Stems ending in a nasal (n)

154. Declension of AttΠ(Stem Attan), Self
(Stem in an, Masc.)

Singular Plural
Nom. attŒ attŒno, attŒ
Gen. attano, attassa attŒnaµ
Dat. attano, attassa attŒnaµ
Acc. attŒnaµ, attaµ, attanaµ attŒno, atte
Ins. attanŒ, attena attanehi, attanebhi
Abl. attanŒ, attasmŒ, attamhŒ attanehi, attanebhi
Loc. attani, attasmiµ, attamhi attanesu
Voc. atta, attŒ attŒno, attŒ

Like attΠ(stem: attan) are declined:
ŒtumŒ, self. muddhŒ, head.
asmŒ, stone. addhŒ, road, distance, time.

155. Declension of BrahmΠ(Stem Brahman, Masc.), Brahma

Singular Plural
Nom. brahmŒ brahmŒno, brahmŒ
Gen. brahmuno, brahmassa brahmŒnam, brahmunaµ
Dat. brahmuno, brahmassa brahmŒnam, brahmunaµ
Acc. brahmŒnaµ, brahmaµ brahmŒno
Ins. brahmanŒ, brahmunŒ brahmehi, brahmebhi, brahmèhi, brahmèbhi
Abl. brahmanŒ, brahmunŒ brahmehi, brahmebhi, brahmèhi, brahmèbhi
Loc. brahme, brahmani brahmesu
Voc. brahme brahmŒno, brahmŒ

(a) In the Loc. Sing. we meet with the forms in - smiµ, mhi: brahmasmiµ, brahmamhi.

156. Declension of RŒjŒ, (Stem RŒjan Masc.), a King

Singular Plural
Nom. rŒjŒ rŒjŒno, rŒjŒ
Gen. ra––o, rŒjino, rŒjassa ra––am, rŒjènaµ, rŒjŒnaµ
Dat. ra––o, rŒjino, rŒjassa ra––am, rŒjènaµ, rŒjŒnaµ
Acc. rŒjŒnaµ, rŒjaµ rŒjŒno
Ins. ra––Œ, rŒjena, rŒjinŒ rŒjèhi, rŒjèbhi, rŒjehi, rŒjebhi
Abl. ra––Œ, rŒjasmŒ, rŒjamhŒ rŒjèhi, rŒjèbhi, rŒjehi, rŒjebhi
Loc. ra––e, ra––i, rŒjini, rŒjimhi, rŒjismiµ rŒjèsu, rŒjesu
Voc. rŒja, rŒjŒ rŒjŒno, rŒjŒ

(a) When the word rŒjŒ is used by itself in a sentence, it follows the above declension, but when it forms the last part of a compound as for instance in dhammarŒjŒ, mahŒrŒjŒ, etc., it follows the declension of Masculine nouns in a, like deva.
(b) The forms of the plural seem to point to a base or stem in u: rŒju.
(c) A few nouns the stem of which ends in an, follow the a declension of Masc. nouns like deva; they are:
vissakamma, the architect of the gods.
vivattacchaddo, He by whom the veil (of ignorance) is rolled back (from this world).
puthuloma, a fish.
yakana, the liver.
athabbana, the fourth veda
and some others.

157. Declension of PumΠ(Stem Puman), a Man

Singular Plural
Nom. pumŒ pumŒno, pumŒ
Gen. pumuno, pumassa pumŒnaµ
Dat. pumuno, pumassa pumŒnaµ
Acc. pumŒnaµ, pumaµ pumŒno, pume
Ins. pumŒnŒ, pumunŒ, pumena pumŒnehi, pumŒnebhi, pumehi, pumebhi
Abl. pumunŒ, pumŒnŒ, pumŒ, pumasmŒ, pumamhŒ pumŒnehi, pumŒnebhi, pumehi, pumebhi
Loc. pumŒne, pume, pumasmiµ, pumamhi pumŒnesu, pumŒsu, pumesu
Voc. pumaµ, puma pumŒno, pumŒ

(a) The influence of the a declension Masculine, is clearly discernible throughout.
(b) The word sŒ a dog, given at (128), properly belongs to this declension; this gives the stem, san, from Sanskrit •van. The declension of nouns the stem of which ends in -in, has already been given (130); these words declined like daöĥi, (stem daöĥin) and rather numerous, form the transition between the pure vowel declension and the declension of consonantal-stems.

158. (II) Stems ending in s

159. Declension of Mano (Stem Manas), the Mind

Singular Plural
Nom. mano, manaµ manŒ
Gen. manaso, manassa manŒnaµ
Dat. manaso, manassa maninaµ
Acc. mano, manaµ mane
Ins. manasŒ, manena manehi, manebhi
Abl. manasŒ, manasmŒ, manamhŒ, manŒ manehi, manebhi
Loc. manasi, mane, manasmiµ, manamhi manesu
Voc. mano, manaµ, manŒ, mana manŒ

(a) It should be borne in mind that mano is never used in the plural, although the forms are given by some grammarians.
(b) The influence of the a declension is here also clearly seen, principally in the plural, of which in fact, all the forms are after the a declension.
(c) There is also a Neuter form in ni in the plural: manŒni.

160. Native grammarians give the following nouns as belonging to the manas declension, their stems ending in as:
vaco, discourse. tejo, power.
vayo, age. tapo, heat.
ceto, thought. tamo, darkness.
yaso, glory, fame. ayo, iron.
payo, a beverage. siro, the head.
chando, metrics, prosody. saro, a lake.
uro, breast. raho, solitude, privacy.
aho, day. rajo, dust, passion.
ojo, splendour; strength. thŒmo, strength, vigour.
vŒso, cloth, clothing.

(a) aha, day, in the Loc. sing. has the following forms: ahasmiµ, ahamhi, ahe, ahu, ahasi, ahuni.
(b) The words: rajo, ojo, thŒmo and vŒso are included in the manas declension by the Sinhalese grammarians.
(c) The comparative adjectives ending in yo, iyyo, as for instance seyyo, gariyo, follow the manas declension.

161. Declension of Œyu (Stem Œyus), Life

Singular Plural
Nom. Œyu, ayuµ Œyè, Œyèni
Gen. Œyussa, Œyuno Œyènaµ, Œyusaµ
Dat. Œyussa, Œyuno Œyènaµ, Œyusaµ
Acc. Œyu, Œyuµ Œyè, Œyèni
Ins. ŒyunŒ, ŒyusŒ Œyèhi, Œyèbhi
Abl. ŒyunŒ, ŒyusŒ Œyèhi, Œyèbhi
Loc. Œyuni, Œyusi Œyèsu
Voc. Œyu, Œyuµ Œyè, Œyèni

162. III. Stems ending in ar (=SANSK ¨)

163. Declension of SatthŒ, the Teacher (Buddha)
(Stem Satthar, Sansk Castr)

Singular Plural
Nom. satthŒ satthŒro, satthŒ
Gen. satthu, satthussa, satthuno satthŒnaµ, satthŒrŒnaµ, satthènaµ
Dat. satthu, satthussa, satthuno satthŒnaµ, satthŒrŒnaµ, satthènaµ
Acc. satthŒraµ, sattharaµ satthŒro, satthŒre
Ins. sattharŒ, satthŒrŒ, satthunŒ satthŒrehi, satthŒrebhi
Abl. sattharŒ, satthŒrŒ, satthunŒ satthŒrehi, satthŒrebhi
Loc. satthari satthŒresu, satthèsu
Voc. sattha, satthŒ satthŒro, satthŒ

(a) The form of the Gen. sing. in u: satthu, is the base employed in the formation of compound words.
(b) Stems ending in ar (Sansk. ¨) have their Nom. sing. in Œ as pitar (=Sansk. pit¨), Nom. sing. pitŒ; so mŒtar (=mŒt¨), Nom. sing. mŒtŒ. Their base in composition is generally in u.
(c) Before suffix to of the Abl. sing. stems in ar often take the vowel i; as pitito, mŒtito, and sometimes a base piti, mŒti is used in composition: pitipakkhe.
(d) Some words whose stem is in ar, follow the a declension (of deva), for instance: sallakatta (stem sallakattar), a physician; kattara (stem kattarar), a weak person; sota (stem sotar), a hearer.


Decline like satthŒ:
netŒ, a guide. nattŒ, a grandson.
mŒtŒ, mother. pitŒ, father.
jetŒ, a conqueror. dŒtŒ, a giver.
kattŒ, an agent. bhŒtŒ, brother.
The words pitŒ and mŒtŒ present some peculiarities.

164. Declension of MŒtŒ, Mother
(Stem MŒtar, Sansk. MŒt¨)

Singular Plural
Nom. mŒtŒ mŒtaro, mŒtŒ
Gen. mŒtu, mŒtuyŒ, mŒtyŒ mŒtarŒnaµ, mŒtŒnaµ, mŒtènaµ, mŒtunnaµ
Dat. mŒtu, mŒtuyŒ, mŒtyŒ mŒtarŒnaµ, mŒtŒnaµ, mŒtènaµ, mŒtunnaµ
Acc. mŒtaraµ mŒtaro, matare
Ins. mŒtarŒ, mŒtuyŒ, mŒtyŒ mŒtarehi, mŒtŒrebhi, mŒtèhi, mŒtèbhi
Abl. mŒtarŒ, mŒtuyŒ, mŒtyŒ mŒtarehi, mŒtŒrebhi, mŒtèhi, mŒtèbhi
Loc. mŒtari, mŒtuyŒ, mŒtyŒ, mŒtuyaµ, mŒtyaµ mŒtaresu, mŒtèsu
Voc. mŒta, mŒtŒ mŒtaro, mŒtŒ

(a) In the oblique cases of the singular, the student will readily recognize the influence of the Feminine declension in the suffixes Œ and µ.
(b) There is also found, rarely, a Gen. sing. in ssa: mŒtussa.

Declension of PitŒ, Father (Stem Pitar, Sansk. Pit¨)

Singular Plural
Nom. pitΠpitaro
Gen. pitu, pituno, pitussa pitarŒnaµ, pitŒnaµ, pitunnaµ, pitènaµ
Dat. pitu, pituno, pitussa pitarŒnaµ, pitŒnaµ, pitunnaµ, pitènaµ
Acc. pitaraµ, pituµ pitaro, pitare
Ins. pitarŒ, pitunŒ, pityŒ, petyŒ pitarehi, pitarebhi, pitèhi, pitèbhi
Abl. pitarŒ, pitu, pityŒ, petyŒ pitarehi, pitarebhi, pitèhi, pitèbhi
Loc. pitari pitaresu, pitèsu
Voc. pita, pitΠpitaro

Remarks. In the Dat. and Gen. plur. of mŒtŒ and pitŒ the n is doubled to compensate for the shortening of è (long); hence: mŒtunnaµ, mŒtènaµ and pitunnaµ, pitènaµ.

165. (IV) The words ending in: at (or ant), vat (or vant), mat (or mant), are mostly adjectives and their declension will be given in the chapter on Adjectives.

We shall, however, give here the declension of a few nouns, in at or vant.

166. Declension of Bhavaµ, Sir (Stem in at, or ant)

Singular Plural
Nom. bhavaµ, bhanto bhavanto, bhavantŒ, bhonto
Gen. bhavantassa, bhavato, bhoto bhavataµ, bhavantŒnaµ
Dat. bhavantassa, bhavato, bhoto bhavataµ, bhavantŒnaµ
Acc. bhavantaµ, bhotaµ bhavante, bhonte
Ins. bhavantena, bhavatŒ, bhotŒ bhavantehi, bhavantebhi
Abl. bhavatŒ, bhavantŒ, bhotŒ bhavantehi, bhavantebhi
Loc. bhavati, bhavante bhavantesu
Voc. bho, bhonta, bhante bhavanto, bhonto, bhante, bhavantŒ

(a) Bhavaµ is a polite term of address, and it may be translated by "Your Honour."
(b) Native grammarians invariably use it as the sign of the Vocative case.
(c) The Feminine, bhot´, "madam" is regularly declined after the ´ declension Feminine, (ad´).

167. Declension of Arahaµ, Saint (Stem in at, or ant)

Singular Plural
Nom. arahaµ, arahŒ arahanto, arahŒ
Gen. arahato, arahantassa arahataµ, arahantŒnaµ
Dat. arahato, arahantassa arahataµ, arahantŒnaµ
Acc. arahantaµ arahante
Ins. arahatŒ, arahantena arahantehi, arahantebhi
Abl. arahatŒ, arahantŒ, arahantasmŒ, arahantamhŒ arahantehi, arahantebhi
Loc. arahati, arahante, arahantasmiµ, arahantamhi arahantesu
Voc. arahanta arahanto

Similarly is declined santa, meaning a good man.